Prólogo
ESIC sigue apostando por la investigación en
el ámbito turístico
Sin duda, la industria turística representa uno
de los sectores económicos más relevantes de la
economía española. Las cifras hablan por sí solas:
según el Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turis-
mo, en 2014 casi 65 millones de turistas interna-
cionales visitaron España, superando por segun-
do año consecutivo nuestro récord histórico. Por
otra parte, en el sector turístico se está observando
una evolución imparable en diversos ámbitos: los
cambios en el comportamiento del turista han de-
terminado que las nuevas tecnologías se convier-
tan en grandes aliadas para conocer a un cliente
mucho más exigente e informado. En este sentido,
el Big Data se alza como el principal protagonista
en un mercado cada vez más segmentado. Precisa-
mente, las nuevas preferencias de los turistas están
motivando la aparición de nuevos modelos de ne-
gocio que se adapten a aquello que demandan los
turistas. Asimismo, resulta imperativo contar con
los medios necesarios para analizar e interpretar
correctamente los datos procedentes del ámbito
turístico y situar al cliente en el centro de la estra-
tegia empresarial.
Conscientes de la preocupación por mejorar las
estrategias de comunicación y marketing de la in-
dustria turística, este monográfico de aDResearch
ESIC, ha querido contribuir con la difusión de
trabajos académicos a esta importante área para la
economía de los países y regiones.
Son muchas las líneas de investigación abier-
tas sobre este sector. Entre ellas cabe destacar, el
análisis del comportamiento del consumidor a la
hora de buscar información online con dispositi-
vos móviles como los smartphones y tablets que va
aumentando su frecuencia, en los últimos años,
frente al clásico ordenador. Esta tendencia crecien-
te es importante a la hora de definir las estrategias
de comunicación y marketing de las empresas ya
que son canales tanto de comercialización como de
comunicación en el sector turístico.
Por otra parte, gran parte de la investigación
también se ha detenido en el estudio de la imagen
de un destino turístico, ya que resulta clave para
el éxito del mismo; además, con la creciente exi-
gencia por parte de los consumidores, del aflora-
miento de nuevos destinos competidores y el in-
cremento en la promoción por parte de destinos
tradicionales, es necesario dirigir los esfuerzos a la
proyección de una imagen favorable como elemen-
to diferenciador del destino con el fin de que los
consumidores potenciales encuentre motivadora
su visita al mismo.
Por otro lado, no hay que olvidar la experiencia
que vive un viajero en un determinado lugar bien
sea por visita turística, viaje de negocios, estancia de
estudio o asistencia a un determinado evento. El vi-
sitante traslada las percepciones de experiencia ha-
cia el valor percibido, ya que asistiendo a los eventos
se viven experiencias, lo que revierte en la mejora
de la imagen del destino que celebran los mismos.
Por todo ello, se hace necesario realizar un se-
guimiento de la innovación y revolución digital
sobre el sector; de la monitorización de las opinio-
nes y comentarios de los viajeros antes, durante y
después de su experiencia; del impacto del móvil y
las redes sociales en la distribución turística; de la
conversión de la publicidad de productos y servi-
cios para conseguir la adecuación al nuevo tipo de
viajero; de la transformación de los redes sociales y
los cambios venideros.
Con el objetivo de favorecer la profesionaliza-
ción y la competitividad, pero también la labor
investigadora en materia turística, ESIC Business
aDResearch ESIC
8
& Marketing School viene celebrando en el cam-
pus de Valencia el Simposio Internacional de In-
novación en Marketing Turístico, IMAT. Estos en-
cuentros, impulsados por INMETUR, Centro de
Innovación de Marketing en Empresas Turísticas
integrado en ESIC Valencia, recoge y difunde los
análisis de las tendencias de innovación en mar-
keting y comunicación turística. Este encuentro a
partir de sus dos ediciones tiene, entre otros ob-
jetivos, convertirse en un lugar de referencia para
fomentar la conexión entre universidad y empresa.
Es por ello, que desde AdResearch ESIC hemos
querido refrendar esta iniciativa y dedicar este nú-
mero especial a la comunicación y el marketing en
el turístico.
Este monográfico recoge diferentes proyectos
de investigación que abordan aspectos interesantes
desde el punto de vista de las estrategias de comu-
nicación y marketing en la industria turística.
Así, el artículo «Marketing Communication and
Sport Tourism Application of Empathy Mapping to
Spectator Football Tourism», los profesores Remondes
y Pinto analizan al espectador de fútbol portugués,
como turista deportivo utilizando el Mapa de Em-
patía, como contribución al desarrollo de estrate-
gias de comunicación de marketing efectivas por
parte de los clubes de fútbol. Para ello los profeso-
res utilizaron una encuesta nacional para evaluar el
comportamiento de los espectadores de fútbol como
turistas deportivos. El Mapa de Empatía se aplicó a
los resultados obtenidos.
Por su parte el profesor Figueroa de la Universi-
dad de Sonora, plantea una propuesta conceptual
para el diseño de una imagen que puede aplicarse
a cualquier comunidad rural, considerando que la
mayoría cuenta con recursos naturales y atributos
propios que las diferencian entre sí. Su propuesta
se basa en tres etapas: la identificación de los re-
cursos naturales y las características de una comu-
nidad; la creación de una ventaja competitiva, y el
propio establecimiento de la forma para diseñar la
imagen turística aplicable a muchas comunidades
rurales.
Abundando en el análisis del comportamiento
del turista deportivo y en las teorías del patrocinio,
las profesoras Aragonés, Küster y Vila de la Uni-
versidad de Valencia proponen un modelo teórico,
que tras un exhaustivo análisis de la cuestión re-
coge, tanto la transferencia de valor y experiencia
entre el evento y el patrocinador, como los ante-
cedentes del comportamiento del visitante de un
gran evento deportivo.
En el artículo, «Algunas aproximaciones a las
paradojas de la comunicación turística. De lo global
a lo local», los profesores de la Universidad de
Valladolid, Berrmejo-Berros y de la Université de
Toulouse III, Bouzon y Marty realizan un análisis
de la manera de hacer publicidad turística oscilan-
do entre lo global y lo local, dependiendo de las
concepciones dominantes y del contexto en cada
momento. Los autores señalan que la eficacia de
la comunicación turística en el futuro debe pasar
por la capacidad de aglutinar estas dimensiones en
sistemas integrados.
Por último, Ayestarán y Trapero, en su artícu-
lo «De Tour OnLine por España, Un Plan Estratégico
(2012-2015)» se detienen en las nuevas tecnologías
de internet para analizar cómo los usuarios de estas
plataformas, que navegan por el portal spain.info,
amparado por la Marca España, se convierten en
turistas.
Es nuestro deseo que este número aporte valor
y utilidad entre la comunidad académica y entre
los profesionales y contribuya a una mejor toma de
decisiones por parte de los agentes involucrados en
la industria turística.
Myriam Martí Sánchez
Consejo de Redacción aDResearch ESIC
9
Marketing
Communication and
Sport Tourism
Application of Empathy
Mapping to Spectator
Football Tourism
Turismo deportivo
y comunicación de
marketing
Aplicación de Mapeos
de Empatía en el Turismo de
Espectadores de Fútbol
aDResearch ESIC
Nº 13 Vol 13 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2016  págs. 10 a 35
Remondes, J., y Pinto Borges, A. (2016).
Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism:
Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football
Tourism
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Comunicación
aDResearch ESIC. Nº 13 Vol 13.
Primer semestre, enero-junio 2016 · Págs. 10 a 35
DOI: 13.7263/ADRESIC.013.001
Jorge Remondes
PhD in Business Communication and Professor at
ISVOUGA – Instituto Superior de Entre Douro e Vouga
and ISAG – E uropean Business School.
j.remondes@doc.isvouga.pt
Ana Pinto Borges
PhD in Economics and Professor at ISAG – European
Business School and Lusíada University - North.
anaborges@isag.pt
The theoretical framework on which this presentation is based is the Empathy Map, a tool of the Bu-
siness Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010). This model provides a means to structure
consumer proles coherently or to develop hypotheses about their proles. The aim of this study is
to characterize Portuguese football spectator tourists using the Empathy Map as a contribution to
the development of eective marketing communication strategies by the football clubs. We made
use of a national survey to assess the behaviour of football spectators as sports tourists and the
Empathy Map was applied to the results. The survey questions were tested through exploratory
factor analysis; to evaluate the socio-economic tourists’ characteristics we applied an ANOVA test. A
review of current literature on consumer behaviour, marketing communications and sports tourism
is also presented. The article produces a visual map in order to demonstrate how the technique can
be used to support decision making in sports tourism and marketing communication. Our results
reveal that the football spectators vibrate with victories, hear friends and family, and are inuenced
by digital media; they carefully observe the teams in the game, the friends, and the animation of the
event. They also celebrate the goals, they participate actively in the event and support their team.
On the other hand, the football spectators as sports tourists are concerned about the safety and
about the access to the stadiums. This instrument provides an example of how sports managers
can get to know the behaviour of football spectator tourists more deeply, together with the envi-
ronment and the factors that inuence it. This technique can thus be an aid to the development of
more eective decisions in the scope of animation in the stadiums, security inside and outside the
stadiums, in accesses to the stadiums and communication through the web and social networks
appropriate to various targets. The empirical application of the Empathy Map is to characterize foot-
ball spectators as sports tourists. This framework has been used to understand the consumer pro-
les of micro, small and medium enterprises, large companies and start-ups. However, it has never
been used to characterize the football spectator and its empirical application is unusual.
El marco teórico en el qué se basa es el Mapa de Empatía, una herramienta de Generación de Mo-
delo de Negocio (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010). Este modelo proporciona un medio para estruc-
turar los perles comerciales de manera coherente, o de desarrollar hipótesis sobre sus perles. El
objetivo de este estudio es describir al espectador de fútbol portugués, utilizando el Mapa de Em-
patía, como contribución al desarrollo de estrategias de comunicación de marketing efectivas por
parte de los clubes de fútbol. Se utilizó una encuesta nacional para evaluar el comportamiento de
los espectadores de fútbol como turistas deportivos, el Mapa de Empatía se aplicó a los resultados
obtenidos. Las preguntas de la encuesta se revisaron mediante el análisis de factores exploratorio.
Utilizamos el test ANOVA para evaluar las características socio-económicas de los turistas. De igual
manera, se ha presentado un análisis de la literatura actual sobre el comportamiento del consumi-
dor, comunicación de marketing y turismo deportivo. El árticulo crea un mapa visual para demostrar
como se puede utilizar la técnica para apoyar la toma de decisiones en el turismo deportivo y la
comunicación de marketing. Nuestros resultados muestran que los espectadores de fútbol vibran
con las victorias, escuchan a los amigos y familia, y estan inuenciados por los medios digitales.
Observan, con atención, a los equipos en los partidos, los amigos, y la animación del evento. Tam-
bién celebran los goles, y participan activamente en el evento, apoyando a sus equipos. Por otro
lado, los espectadores de fútbol, como turistas deportivos, se preocupan por la seguridad y el acce-
so a los estadios. Este instrumento proporciona un ejemplo de como los directores deportivos pue-
den conocer el comportamiento de los turistas espectadores de futbol con profundidad, junto con
los factores y ambiente que les inuyen. Esta técnica, por lo tanto, nos puede ayudar en el desarrollo
de decisiones más efectivas en el campo de la animación en los estadios, la seguridad dentro y
fuera de los mismos, los accesos y la comunicación a través de la web y redes sociales adecuadas
para los diferentes objetivos. La aplicación empírica del Mapa de Empatía es caracterizar a los espec-
tadores de fútbol como turistas deportivos. El contexto se ha utilizado para entender los perles del
consumidor de microempresas, PYMES y grandes compañias, así como empresas de reciente crea-
ción. Sin embargo, nunca se ha utilizado para describir al espectador de fútbol y su aplicación empí-
rica no es habitual.
ABSTRACT
RESUMEN
Clasicación JEL:
M31, M37
Palabras clave:
Comportamiento
del consumidor,
empatía,
fútbol,
Comunicación de
marketing,
turismo deportivo.
JEL Classication:
M31, M37
Key words:
Consumer Behaviour,
empathy,
football,
Marketing Commu-
nication,
Sport Tourism.
Nº 13 Vol 13 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2016  págs. 10 a 35
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Nº 13 Vol 13 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2016  págs. 10 a 35
1. Introduction
Sport in general and football in particular are
areas where marketing communications techni-
ques began to be applied later than in other
fields. These techniques contribute to acquiring
and retaining supporters, and therefore to per-
forming attractive spectacles of the cities and
locations in a perspective of sports tourism.
In sport there is a deep involvement and pas-
sion of the public (Brito and Lancaster, 2014).
For this reason, the sports product, which for
part of the spectators is also a touristic product,
has a relevant role. This refers to the need to un-
derstand who buys and consumes the sports
and/or tourism product. In fact, marketing has a
fundamental principle to characterize the profile
of consumers that purchase a product or service,
so that the best value proposition is possible to
provide in every moment and context.
But most sports clubs in Portugal continue,
despite increasing efforts, not knowing very well
who the kind of people who attend their games
are, how many times a year, if they will go as
they move, when they decide to go, if they go
alone or accompanied and even how much mo-
ney they spend each year with the club (Sá and
Sá, 2008). This panorama in sports is clearly un-
satisfactory, there is not information at all about
the consumers and their psychological profile,
essential pieces of information for marketing
professionals (Sá and Sá, 2008).
In this context, we intend to characterize the
Portuguese football tourists using the Empathy
Map as a contribution to the development of
effective marketing communications strategies
by the football clubs. The approach made to the
subject is innovative for two reasons. The first
relates to the fact that there are more studies that
characterize mega events such as the Olympic
Games or the World Championships (Richard et
al., 2013). In the purpose of the prologue of the
World Cup Brazil 2014, for example, Richard et
al. (2013) concluded that the destination in-
fluences the satisfaction of sport tourists, inclu-
ding security or the lack of it and it has implica-
tions in loyalty to the destination host. The
second reason is related to the application of the
Osterwalder and Pigneur model (2010), the
Empathy Map, to characterize the spectator tou-
rists football, an analytical model of the latest
consumer profile and poorly applied even in
areas of society where marketing has been a rea-
lity since the previous century.
The general objective of this paper is to un-
derstand the behaviour, the attitudes and the
motivations of the football spectator tourists in
Portugal. Specific objectives are defined as: (1) to
characterize the socio-economic profile of foot-
ball spectator tourists; (2) the application of the
Empathy Map to better characterize the football
spectator tourists point from the behavioural and
motivational point of view (3) pointing marke-
ting communications strategies amenable to im-
plementation by the national football clubs view.
In applying the Empathy Map, the following
questions were formulated: What do the football
spectator tourists think, feel, hear, see, say and
do? What are the aspirations and fears of the
football spectator tourists? The methodology was
based on a national survey. The data was analy-
sed considering the descriptive statistics and fac-
torial analysis, to answer research questions and
achieve the goals set analysis.
In section 2 the main literature review is pre-
sented and section 3 describes the methodology
and the structure of the survey questionnaire
administered to football spectator tourists. Sec-
tion 4 is devoted to the analysis of the results
13
Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism: Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football Tourism · págs. 10 a 35
using the statistical analysis and in section 5 the
results and strategic reflection are discussed. The
paper ends with Section 6 with the main conclu-
sions, including some references to limitations
and suggestions for future research.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Sport Tourism
The sports tourism attractions provide opportu-
nities for strategic development of a destination
(Hinch and Higham, 2008). If a destination ca-
pitalizes on the sport as a tourist attraction, it can
be managed strategically as a cultural attraction.
Therefore, the investment in the sports side of
tourism can generate a positive return. Li and
Jago (2013) evaluate the impact of tourism ex-
penditure associated with regular sporting com-
petitions, and prove that this kind of event has a
significant and an important net economic acti-
vity. On the other hand, the small-scale sporting
events also have untapped potential for the de-
velopment of tourism on host communities
(Gibson et al., 2003).
Weeb (2007) states that in tourism, paradoxi-
cally, the motivation for a trip is often related to
the return. In sports tourism, the risk associated
with the purchase can be both a danger to be
avoided and a thrill to be sought. Thus, mega-
sporting events can be a social and cultural suc-
cess but also an economic disaster (or vice versa).
So whether for communities, clubs, sponsors
or advertisers, the principle of creating a busi-
ness model that is based on a value proposition
for the customer and an operational model ad-
vocated is essential (Thompson et al., 2013).
These authors explain that the value proposition
describes the customers who are the target, the
products and services desired to offer to satisfy
wants and needs at a price they consider as a
good value. Only then, can you retain sporting
tourists, targets for which we must continually
study the variables that influence their loyalty to
be able for organizations to enhance the relation-
ship with the same (Bee and Havitz, 2010).
Spectator tourists football falls within the
concept of sports tourism which, according to
Hall (1992), is to «travel by non-commercial re-
asons not to participate or observe sporting acti-
vities outside the home». The author believes
sport to be a major tourism attraction, has iden-
tified not only the events as key elements of
sports tourism, but also adventure tourism and
health and fitness tourism.
Carvalho & Lourenço (2008) distinguished
sports tourists, who are people who make a trip
out of their usual environment and who stay at
least a night in the place visited and sports day
visitors, who stay less than a night at the site. In
this article, we consider a football spectator tou-
rist, one who moves to watch a game outside the
district of residence.
For their part, the sports events can be classi-
fied according to their size and reach, in (Is-
hiy,1998): (1); locations (2); regionals (3); natio-
nals (4) continental ; and (5) worldwide.
2.2 Marketing Communications in Sport
Kotler and Armstrong (2013) define marketing
as «the process by which companies create value
for customers and build strong relationships
with them to capture their exchange value» and
emphasize a clear way that companies that stand
out for their guidance marketing seek to learn
and understand the needs, desires and demands
of their customers. Therefore, they plan research
on models of consumer behaviour and analyse
data. An important aspect of the work of these
classics is the distinction they make between
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Nº 13 Vol 13 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2016  págs. 10 a 35
culture, as the main determinant of the desires
and behaviours of a person, and the subculture,
as a group of people who share the same values.
For example, Salomé (2009) studied the ultra-
subculture in football, to which Portuguese sup-
porters groups adhered, which demarcate the
traditional supporters and concluded that since
the 90´s both parties accept each other despite
their differences. Cultural Studies in the light of
the thought of Stuart Hall in the 1970´s conside-
red these forms of popular culture as valid in the
post-modern area, due to their democratic traits
and their impact on mass culture.
Therefore, it will be possible to assert that the
sports-marketing and marketers should seek to
identify cultural changes in followers, who be-
have as «tribes» (Brito and Lancaster, 2014; Dio-
nísio, 2009; Sá and Sá, 2008), because they
compare a stadium to a «sacred place», and they
identify themselves with rituals such as the input
the competing teams, among others, and stud-
ying subcultures that are also important market
segments. In the stadiums, not only the rituals
but also the animation based on a number of
parallel activities, which can either be directed to
those who participate and for those attending
(Almeida and Araújo, 2012) is an important va-
riable of the sports spectacle. But still as the sta-
diums are concerned, Solomon (2012) believes
that sporting events can be defined as «sacred»
because it is common for teams to gather in pra-
yer before the game, the stadium is a «worship
temple», and «fans» are members of the congre-
gation. Other authors also speak of fans as «fans»
(Wiid, 2012; Dionísio, 2009; Sá and Sá, 2008).
In sports marketing, the marketing concept
still applies to the activities performed by enter-
prises exterior to the sporting events, as spon-
sors and advertisers, companies already cited in
this article, which direct their messages to con-
sumers-football spectators on site and through
traditional and online media (Brito and Lancas-
ter, 2014), media influencing fans (Almeida,
2008). Gastaldo (2011) means that the entry of
new communication technologies in sport has
expanded its historical links with the media, be-
cause of the mediatizing of sports events being
responsible for successive audience phenomena.
2.3 Consumer Behaviour in Sport
According to Flecha & Pontello (2015), within
the framework of the study of sport consumer
behavior there are three dimensions of analysis:
(1) the behaviour of the individual while specta-
tor; (2) the decision-making process in con-
sumption, and (3) the motivations.
The studies developed by some authors, can
point to the following characteristics of the tou-
rists football viewers: (1) as in other areas these
consumers can be considered «blended», un-
derscoring this reality in the generation of the
nineties or in this century, which did not make
the transition from traditional to digital (Viegas,
2012); the consumers of sport can be considered
one of the best examples of the «why genera-
tion», this meaning that new consumers want to
have a voice about the products that they consu-
me. For example, in the 2011/12 sports season,
the blue colour of TMN had to be removed from
the sweatshirts of Sport Lisboa and Benfica, as it
was the colour of the rival FC Porto, having be-
come only the white sweatshirts lettering the
TMN brand on red background (Marketing Fu-
ture Lab, 2012); (3) the predominant emotion in
the football spectator competition is high anxiety,
represented by body behaviour «stand still»
most of the time, and for many episodes that are
unique physical behaviours as «embrace» for the
15
Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism: Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football Tourism · págs. 10 a 35
goal «bounce with high elevation and high
rhythm» and «jump with low elevation and
high rhythm» for victory (Neto, 2009); (4) the
consumer spectators are enthusiastic suppor-
ters and put other consumers beside with beha-
viours of young hoodlums of supporters teams
or whistles and insults of organized supporters
; (5) the consumer spectators share with fans of
their club the common goal that is always to
win, although they may disagree about the
means to achieve that purpose, such as this or
that player that should play (Almeida, 2008);
(6) there may be alcohol and drug problems
and destructive behaviour by the crowd rising
and criminality (Madeira et al., 2007); (7) the
adept may be called the «Exclusive fan» - elusi-
ve fan - having higher expectations and living in
new technologies, individualism and time pres-
sure environment; (Rein et al., 2006.) (8) the
female consumers in most sports value more
loyalty, socialization, self-realization and equality
through sport than male consumers who are more
motivated by stress, affiliation with a group and
entertainment do (Chen, 2010). Analysis of the
various characteristics of football spectators tou-
rists, as Bee and Kahle (2006) refer, the sports
marketing always involves some kind of relation-
ship among the public.
In this paper, we study the behaviour of the
football spectator tourist using the Empathy Map,
a concept map which is always a tool that is both
simple and an elegant complexity (Novak and
Cañas, 2010), precisely to contribute to greater
knowledge of this market segment and simulta-
neously to help administrators and managers to
develop suitable strategies for the organizations
involved.
The Empathy Map (see Figure 1) is an integral
part of the methodology of development of busi-
Figure 1 · Empathy Map
Source: Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010).
Gain
Think & Feel?
Say & Do?
See?Hear?
Pain
aDResearch ESIC
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Nº 13 Vol 13 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2016  págs. 10 a 35
ness concepts «Business Model Generation», al-
ready applied in brands such as 3M, Panasonic,
Michelin, Mastercard, SAP, Intel, Colgate and
Syngenta, among others, created by XPLANE,
the visual thinking company, which Osterwalder
and Pigneur (2010) like to call «makers of truly
simple customer profiles» feature helps to cha-
racterize consumers not only in a demographic
perspective, but to better understand the envi-
ronment, their behaviour, concerns and aspira-
tions.
For the authors described above, making the
Empathy Map allows designing a stronger busi-
ness model because a deeper knowledge of the
consumer guides the elaboration of better value
propositions and communication strategies than
traditional methods. The Empathy Map allows
us to understand better what it is that consumers
are truly willing to purchase, looking for an-
swers to: 1. What the customer sees when con-
suming? 2. What the customer hears when con-
suming? 3. What do you think and feel when
client consumes? 4. What customer speaks and
makes to consume? 5. What are the pains to
consume (doubts, fears, difficulties)? 6. What
are the gains that can surprise the consumer?
These were the variables set out in an online
questionnaire, whose planning and implemen-
tation we justify and detail in the following sec-
tion. To assess what the tourist spectator cup in
Portugal sees, hears, thinks and feels, talks and
does when watching a game, their «pain» and
gains, having finally identified design opportu-
nities for better value and better communication
techniques in football clubs.
3. Methodology
Our main purpose in this paper is to characteri-
ze Portuguese football tourists applying the Em-
pathy Map. To reach this goal a self-complete
questionnaire was designed to survey the Portu-
guese football tourists and it was made available
online on various social networks (Facebook,
Google Plus, LinkedIn e Twitter). Moreover, the
survey was made available in open forums and
most actively in some football clubs.
The online survey was hosted on Facebook
for the intended market segment (respondents
from 18 years of age and both genders), so that
the contents was viewed by many people and
would reach audiences nationwide. The total
number of views obtained was 145.797. The
questionnaire was available during three months
and 203 valid responses were obtained.
It is important here to remember, that in this
article, it is considered as football tourist specta-
tor, one that moves for a game outside the dis-
trict of residence and in total a sample of 109
individuals was obtained.
According to Silvestre (2007) one of the most
useful sampling methods is the method of casual
simple random sampling. In accordance with
this method, each element of the universe has
equal chance of being chosen for the sample. Gi-
ven the population around 8,000,000 people
(according to the INE, 2015) the sample should
be of at least 97 respondents, with a confidence
range of 95% and a sample error of 10%, so the
sample collected may be representative of the
population under study.
The questionnaire was divided taking three
groups into account: the socio-demographic
characteristics of the respondents; the descrip-
tion of the football spectators in terms of the fa-
vourite and member of football club, the natio-
nal and international tourism to watch the
football match and expenses with the trip; and
two scales, one relating to the frequent beha-
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Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism: Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football Tourism · págs. 10 a 35
viour of the football spectator tourist (think and
feel, hear, see, say and do) presented on 5-point
Likert-type scales ranging from (1) «never» to
(5) «always», and the other relating to aspira-
tions and concerns of the football spectator tou-
rist presented on 5-point Likert-type scales ran-
ging from (1) «strongly disagree» to (5) «strongly
agree».
Initially, we proceeded to the general charac-
terization of the football spectators based on
descriptive analysis. With the objective to better
understand the behaviour of the spectator as a
sports tourist, the expenditure on trip, food and
beverage, inside and outside the country, we
considered the different socio-economic tourists’
characteristics and we applied an ANOVA test.
Finally, the survey questions, of the frequency
behaviour in relation of think and feel, hear, see,
and say and do, were tested through exploratory
factor analysis to acknowledge the dimensions
perceived by the spectator as sports tourist. The
same analysis was done for the survey questions
of aspirations and concerns with the objective to
understand the main dimensions. We applied
the exploratory factor analysis because it is an
appropriate instrument to reduce data to a sma-
ller set of summary variables and to explore the
underlying theoretical structure of the pheno-
mena (Marôco, 2011).
4. Research Fidings
Characterization of the sample
The sample contains 70,4% males, 29,6% fema-
les and the following age breakdown: less than
18 (3,0%), 18-22 (22,7%), 23-28 (21,2%), 29-
35 (20,2%), 36-45 (20,2%), 46-55 (9,4%), 56-
65 (3,0%) and more than 65 (0,5%). As to the
marital status, 60,6% are single, 29,1% married,
8,9% divorced and 1,5% widowed. Concerning
the net monthly income, 32,0% have less or
equal to 1.000, 35,5% between 1.001 and
2.000, 20,7% between 2.001 and 3.000 and
11,8% more than 3.000. About numbers of in-
dividuals in the household, until 1 person 16,7%,
between 2 and 5 persons 79,8%, and more than
5 persons 3,4%. Regarding schooling and quali-
fications, 2,5% of the respondents have a basic
level, 32,5% have secondary education, 41,9%
have a graduation level, 17,7% have a Master le-
vel and 5,4% have a PhD.
Football spectators as sports tourists
In our whole sample we observe that 93,1%
(189 respondents) are supporters of a football
club and the majority are fans of Futebol Clube
do Porto (52,4%), followed by Benfica fans
(24,3%), Sporting fans (14,8%) and other clubs
(8,5%) (See graphic 1 - pag. 18).
Only 27,6% (56 respondents) are members of
a football club. Of the respondents who answered
that they were members of a club, we observe the
predominance of Porto club members (55,4%),
followed by Benfica club members (19,6%),
Sporting club members (7,1%) and other clubs
members (17,9%) (See graphic 2 - pag. 18).
More than half of the respondents, 53,7%
(109 respondents), attend the football match out-
side the district of residence, and 46,8% moves at
least once a month (See graphic 3- pag. 19).
For the respondents that revealed that they
attend the football match outside the district of
residence, 53,7% (109 spectator as sports tou-
rist), the average expenditure on the trip is equal
to 47,67 and on food and beverage it is 21,32;
the maximum expenditure is equal to 950 and
400, respectively. The sports events, in this con-
text, football match, have potential to increase
the city revenue, while increasing the travelling
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Graphic 2 · Member football club (n=203)
Graphic 1 · Favourite football club (n=203)
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Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism: Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football Tourism · págs. 10 a 35
desire of the supporters of the football club
(Table 1).
The average expenditure is separated in two di-
fferent columns for each category of expenditure,
by different socio-economic respondents’ charac-
teristics. Results of the ANOVA test are reported
in order to compare the means of expenditure
related to the selected respondent’s characteris-
tics (see Table A1 in Appendix A). The expendi-
ture on trip is significant with respect to marital
status, with married people spending more, with
the number of individuals in the household, with
more than five persons to spend more, and with
schooling and qualifica tions, with persons with
more education to spend more. The expenditure
on food and beverage is significant with respect
to age, with the persons from age 36 to 45 years
spending more; with respect to marital status,
with married persons spending more, and incre-
asing with function net monthly income.
The respondents evidence that 11,3% (23
respondents), attend the football match outside
the country and the majority, 65,2%, assist
annually.
Graphic 3 · Frequency and attending of the football match outside the district
of residence (n=203)
Table 1 · Descriptive statistics of spending (€), outside the district of residence (n=109)
Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Spending on trip 950 47,67 116,108
Spending on food and beverage 400 21,32 41,848
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For the respondents that revealed that they
attend the football match outside the country,
11,3% (23 tourists), the average expenditure on
trip is equal to 384,13 and on food and bevera-
ge it is 189,13(See Table 2).
The average expenditure outside the country
is separated in two different columns for each
category of expenditure, by different socio-eco-
nomic respondents’ characteristics. The results
of the ANOVA test are reported in order to com-
pare the means of expenditure related to the se-
lected respondent’s characteristics (see Table A2
in Appendix A). The expenditure on trip is sig-
nificant with respect to age, with the persons
between 36 and 45 years old spending more,
and as for marital status, with married people
spending more. The expenditure on food and
beverage is only significant with respect to mari-
tal status, with married persons spending more.
The concern with the economical impact of
small sports tourism has been growing (Gibson
et al., 2005; Daniels and Norman, 2003; Wilson,
2006; Allan et al., 2007). Small-scale sports
events take into account regular season sporting
competitions, as for example football champion-
ships. This contrasts with mega-events through
their use of existing infrastructure, their need for
less public support to host, their avoidance of
tourism seasonality, and their more easily mana-
ged scale (Higham, 1999). Our paper does not
focus on a particular event (see for example,
Gibson et al., 2002; Allan et al., 2007) and its
Graphic 4 · Frequency and attendance of the football match outside of the
country (n=203)
Table 2 - Descriptive statistics of spending (€), outside of the country (n=23)
Maximum Mean
Std.
Deviation
Spending on trip 1500 384,13 367,778
Spending on food and beverage 700 189,13 206,324
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Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism: Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football Tourism · págs. 10 a 35
main objective is not to quantify the impact of
the tourism expenditure associated with regular
season sporting competitions. However, we ob-
served that the expenditures are large per per-
son, and increase with married people and with
a greater number of family elements. The net
economic activity supported by this form of
sports tourism is significant.
Empathy of the football spectator tourist
In the context of the Empathy Map, in the eva-
luation of think and feel, we observe that the foot-
ball spectator tourist presents high levels of fre-
quency in all items, with special attention to the
goals of the team and with its victory (see Table
B1 in Appendix B where the descriptive statistics
of scale applied are presented). The expectation
of seeing new destinations, although that not
being the main objective, has a high interest. In
the evaluation of hear the tourists give more at-
tention to the friends, family and social net-
works. To characterize what the tourists see, we
observed that they expect to see the teams in the
game and in the environment created by the me-
dia: radio and television, the friends and the ani-
mation in the stadium. In the context of say and
do, the tourists intend to celebrate goals, the vic-
tory, support the team and attend the match in
full (see Table B1 in Appendix B).
In the aspirations, the football spectator tou-
rist presents high levels of concordance with the
items related to the football match, with the vic-
tory of the team and its fun (see Table B2 in Ap-
pendix B where the descriptive statistics of scale
applied are presented). The desire for seeing the
attractions of the tourist destination, although
this not being the main objective, has a high in-
terest. In opposite, the football spectator tourists
do not see the football match as an opportunity
to do network. The main concerns are related to
the security inside and outside of the stadium,
and in the eventual poor access to the stadium
(see Table B2 in Appendix B).
The main dimensions of the football spec-
tator tourist
In the first moment, we present the factor analysis
to understand the dimensions of the football tou-
rists in the think and feel, hear, see, and say and do
aspect. The first indicators of this type of analysis
are the KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) and the Bart-
lett test giving an indication of how far the factor
analysis should be performed with the data in
question. The data obtained show us that the fac-
tor analysis should be performed (KMO = 0,924).
The statistical value of the Bartlett’s test (X
2
=
4772,665) is significant (p = 0,000), and the co-
rrelations between variables are suitable for doing
a factor analysis.
We conducted factor analysis using the Vari-
max rotation for the items and six distinct factors
emerged in the sample which explained
68,038% of the total variance for the data. All
items loaded highly on the factors, and no item
loaded on more than one factor, supporting the
independence of the dimensions. The criteria for
acceptance of the results were defined by the
academic literature. As we can see in the table
below, the factors that resulted from the data
analysis were the victory of the team (factor 1),
the animation in the stadium (factor 2), the
teams (factor 3), the social part (factor 4) the me-
dia (factor 5) and the touristic component.
Factor 1 is the most important, it is related to
the team’s victory and with the support. It is an
expected result because the supporters always
want their team to win. Factor 2 combines the va-
riables that make a live football spectacle unique:
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the audience, the supporters group and the ani-
mation in the stadium. Factor 3 joins all necessary
teams to carry out a football game: technical teams,
refereeing team and teams of the clubs. Factor 4 is
related with an important component of this kind
of events, the social part that includes the friends
and the family. Factor 5 evidences the relevance of
the media online. Factor 4 exhibits the tourist
component that can be followed when the sup-
porters move to see a football match.
Variables
Loading*
Team
victory
Animation
in stadium
Teams Social part Media
Tourist
component
36 I celebrate the goals of my team
0,797
42 I celebrate the victory of my club
0,784
39 I always support my team during the match
0,776
4 I am entranced with the goals of my team
0,741
3 I believe in the victory of my team
0,729
40 I support my team when it is winning
0,711
37 I express my dissatisfaction with refereeing errors
0,637
22 Audience
0,734
23 Supporters group
0,710
34 Animation in stadium
0,606
27 Technical teams
0,780
26 Refereeing team
0,756
25 Teams in game
0,619
28 Friends
0,739
29 Family
0,728
7 Friends
0,647
15 Social Networks
0,801
14 Online Newspapers
0,763
6 I am happy to get to know a new destination
0,666
Eigenvalues/Rotation Sums Squared Loadings 14,149 2,121 1,843 1,432 1,192 1,036
% Variance 44,215 6,628 5,760 4,474 3,725 3,236
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
Table 3 · The main dimensions of the football tourists in the think and feel, hear, see, and say
and do aspect (n=109)
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In the second moment, we present the factor
analysis to understand the dimensions of the as-
pirations and concerns of the football spectator
tourist. The indicators KMO = 0,736 and
Bartlett’s test c2 = 1320,897 confirm that the fac-
tor analysis should be performed, and the corre-
lations between variables are suitable for doing a
factor analysis.
We conducted factor analysis using the Vari-
max rotation for the items and two distinct fac-
tors emerged in the sample which explained
86,709% of the total variance for the data. All
items loaded highly on the factors, and no item
loaded on more than one factor, supporting the
independence of the dimensions. The factors
that resulted from the data analysis were the se-
curity concerns (factor 1) and the gaining aspira-
tion (factor 2).
Factor 1 is related to the security concerns in
relation to the inside and the outside of the sta-
dium and the poor access. Factor 2 reflects the
desire by the tourist that the team wins and is
the best.
The results obtained in the light of the Em-
pathy Map in analysis may be synthesized through
Figure 2 that intends to represent the football
spectator tourist. (See Figure 2 - Pag. 24).
5. Discussion
The results allow us to characterize the profile of
the tourist spectator of football based on the Em-
pathy Map and, in this sense, confirm that the
same show predominantly related to the beha-
viours that come when they go watch a football
game outside of their site, like the animation in
the stadium, teams, friends and family, teams,
staff, supporters and what they say and do when
they watch the show, as the celebration of goals,
supporting their team, expressions of displeasu-
re by the refereeing errors and celebration of the
victory of their team, which means we are faced
with active consumers and that the dimension
view, appreciates not only the football game at
Table 4 · The main dimensions of the aspirations and concerns of the football spectator tourist (n=109)
Variables
Loading*
Security concerns Gaining aspiration
53 Lack of security outside the stadium
0,954
52 Lack of security at the stadium
0,943
54 Poor access to the stadium
0,862
46 I wish that my team is the best
0,948
47 I wish my team wins the game
0,945
45 I desire to attend a good football match
0,795
Eigenvalues/Rotation Sums Squared Loadings 3,663 1,539
% Variance 61,056 25,653
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
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the destination, but also tourist attractions,
although this is not the main purpose of their
journeys.
As consumers manifest themselves more in
these dimensions, and obviously leaving behind
what the spectator tourist hears (social net-
works, online newspapers and acquaintances)
and what he/she thinks and feels, as he almost
always thinks about the victory of his/her team
but also about the happiness that destiny can
bring, one may suggest to sports managers that
the investment in terms of marketing and strate-
gic communication should fall preferentially on
the following efforts:
• Win titles (Factor 1 - most important);
• Investing in improving in the internal and
external security of the stadium (Factor 1
- most important);
• Animate the events to delight and excite
the audiences (Factor 2);
• Providing competitive teams to fans and
supporters team, (Factor 3);
• Managing the notoriety and brand reputa-
tion in every moment, since friends and
family influence each other (factor 4);
• Manage strategically and operationally
the presence of the club in various social
networks (Factor 5).
The effort of winning titles is crucial because
the main aspirations revealed by the respon-
Figure 2 · Empathy Map: Football tourist spectator
Concerns Aspirations
I celebrate
goals of my
team
I always
support my
team during
the match
I support my
team when
it is winning
I celebrate
the victory
of my club
Poor access
to the
stadium
Lack of
security at
the stadium
Lack of
security
outside the
stadium
I wish my
team win
the game
I wish that
my team is
the best
I desire
to attend a
good
football
match
Friends
Online
Newspapers
Social
Networks
I stay
entranced
with the goals
of my team
I believe in
the victory
of my team
I stay happy
to know
a new
destination
Technical
teams
Teams in
game
Animation
in stadium
I express my
disatisfaction
with refereeing
team errors
Think and
Feel
Say and Do
SeeHear
Family
Audiencie
Friends
Supporters
group
Refereeing
team
25
Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism: Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football Tourism · págs. 10 a 35
dents were watching a good football game, their
team was the best and one wins. Security must
be considered because access to the stadium and
security abroad and inside the stadium is what
most concerns the football spectators. The ani-
mation events, competitive teams and a strategic
and operational management of digital commu-
nication that allows managing the notoriety and
reputation, allows the spectators to be more sa-
tisfied with what they see and hear, generating
behaviours (and speaking about them) more fa-
vourably to the sports event.
However, the information gathered through
this study confirms the trend for communica-
tion blended in Dionísio (2009), and thus must
follow their recommendations for the sports
clubs: creation of official sites with information,
data bases of supporters to rapidly identify tar-
gets, spaces that may enable the online dialogue
such as forums or Facebook which amidst other
social networks help the meeting of supporters
that follow the club.
The animation of the sporting events can also
certainly go through the proper management of
lighting, traffic flows of people (Madeira et al.,
2007), the interior and exterior design of the sta-
dium (Widd, 2012) and the animation on the
lawn.
Not only to sports managers, but also to poli-
cymakers, it is required to provide good access
to sporting venues if they wish to attract football
spectator tourists to their cities. Policy makers
are also asked to devise a marketing strategy for
cities that allow sharing value propositions with
their visitors, so that they will feel like coming
back. Their loyalty or capture remains a prere-
quisite for the survival of the sports clubs (Rein
et al., 2006), because most sporting events imply
high costs for the consumer-spectator when he
wants to attend the game (Viegas, 2012), related
costs not only with the price of entry in the sta-
dium, but also related to the hotel and food and
beverage, among others.
In this field, we think there are still some cha-
llenges to be overcome by the entities, since
sports tourism is a recent area to be managed on
a marketing perspective. However, we believe
that entities do not bother to know the reality
around them, are likely to lose space to adapt.
This study helps to know tourist profile football
spectator a little better, and that should be the
focus. The supporter is a priority for any club
and the tourist is decisive not only for the club
but for the cities where sporting events take place,
including regular football games .
6. Conclusions
The aim of our study is to understand the beha-
viour, attitudes and motivations of football spec-
tator tourists, so that sports managers can make
decisions and appropriate marketing communi-
cation. This goal was achieved with the concep-
tual contribution which resulted in the develop-
ment and empirical verification of the relationship
between the concepts of sports tourism, marke-
ting communications in sport and football spec-
tator tourist behaviour, having culminated in the
preparation of the study Empathy Map of Os-
terwalder and Pigneur (2010), that made it pos-
sible to draw the profile of this type of tourist. In
the end, we were able to identify marketing
communications strategies for football clubs and
for those responsible for the management of the
cities.
At the bottom, with this study we answer the
questions raised earlier in the research: what do
the football spectators tourists think, feel, hear,
see, say? What are the aspirations and fears of
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the football spectator tourists? We can conclude
that, in general, the football spectators tourists
feel the victory of the team more and if the team
reaches the objectives or not, preferably hear
friends, family, and are influenced by social net-
works, like to see the teams play, the environ-
ment created by the media, friends and the ani-
mation in the sports event as well as celebrate
goals, victories, actively participate in the event
and support the team. It seems that the main
aspiration is even the victory of the team. The
desire to see the tourist attractions of the destina-
tion, although not being the primary goal, also
has a high interest. On the other hand, the foot-
ball spectator tourists are concerned about the
safety inside and outside the stadium and about
the lack of access to the stadium. However, the
dimensions see and talk and do have statistically
proven to be more significant.
The strategies identified in the study refer pri-
marily to the need for the teams to win games
and competitions and for clubs to invest in im-
proving safety and access to the stadium, in the
provision of sporting activities and competitive
teams, managing notoriety, reputation and com-
munication through social networks.
Limitations and suggestions for future
research
This study is another step towards understan-
ding the «fan» football tourist, personage of our
Map of Empathy, whose knowledge lacks clear
links and systematic studies (Jones, 2008).
However, it has limitations that future research
should try to overcome precisely by repeating
the Map of Empathy with new participants. It
also proposes the monitoring of certain consu-
mers in their tourist-sporting experiences in or-
der to better get to know their behaviours and
attitudes on events that might reveal significant
changes in the profile of these football spectator
tourists and the variables that influence these
changes. Therefore, the use of triangulation, i.e.
the integrated quantitative research with qualita-
tive research, can afford to do Map of Empathy
in greater depth, and identify other unobserved
variables in this first approach to the model
used.
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Appendix A
Table A1 · Descriptive statistics of spending (€), outside the district of the residence (n=109)
Average of spending on
Variables trip
ANOVA
(p-value)
food
and beverage
ANOVA
(p-value)
Gender 0,135 (0,714) 1,182 (0,279)
Female 45,2 18,7
Male 54,48 28,55
Age 0,593 (0,735) 2,557*
less than 18 23 11
18-22 years old 51,65 11,26
23-28 years old 22,76 10,52
29-35 46,9 26,5
36-45 86,47 54,33
46-55 70,63 31,25
56-65 - -
more than 65 - -
Marital status 16,199** 5,049**
single 24,71 12,3
married 77,7 46,19
divorced 58,75 32,5
widowed 49,5 6
Net monthly income 1,306 (0,276) 6,735**
Less or equal 1.000€ 55,09 11,79
1.001€ and 2.000€ 29,33 14,77
2.001€ and 3.000€ 42,48 23,33
more than 3.000€ 102,08 67,5
.../...
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Individuals in household 3,895* 0,412 (0,663)
1 person 47,46 22,31
2 and 5 persons 39,38 22,19
more than 5 persons 172,5 6,17
Schooling and qualications 5,488** 1,345 (0,258)
Basic level 26,91 5
Secondary education 30,51 17,26
Graduate 35 15,89
Master 71,91 35,14
PhD 103,02 44,4
Notes: All test results are not signicant unless indicated otherwise: ** signicant at p ≤ 0,001,
Average of spending on
Variables trip
ANOVA
(p-value)
food
and beverage
ANOVA
(p-value)
Table A2 · Descriptive statistics of spending (€), outside of the country (n=23)
Average of spending on
Variables Trip
ANOVA
(p-value)
Food and Beverage
ANOVA
(p-value)
Gender 0,027 (0,872) 0,101 (0,754)
Female 390 195,53
Male 356,25 158,75
Age 2,976* 1,371 (0,284)
less than 18 - -
18-22 years old 127,5 157,5
23-28 years old 201 159
29-35 244 172
.../...
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Marketing Communication and Sport Tourism: Application of Empathy Mapping to Spectator Football Tourism · págs. 10 a 35
36-45 760 365
46-55 600 230
56-65 - -
more than 65 - -
Marital status 6,010* 5,570**
single 185,42 165,32
married 688,89 323,89
divorced - -
widowed - -
Net monthly income 0,962 (0,431) 1,060 (0,389)
Less or equal 1.000€ 130 135
1.001€ and 2.000€ 236,67 170,83
2.001€ and 3.000€ 489,44 213,33
more than 3.000€ 458,33 225,83
Individuals in household 1,524 (0,242) 1,674 (0,213)
1 person 176,25 92,5
2 and 5 persons 451,11 193,33
more than 5 persons - -
Schooling and qualications 1,213 (0,332) 2,578 (0,084)
Basic level - -
Secondary education 260 101
Graduate 245,71 96,43
Master 556,11 252,22
PhD 405 450
Notes: All test results are not signicant unless indicated otherwise: ** signicant at p ≤ 0,001, * signicant at p ≤ 0,05.
Average of spending on
Variables Trip
ANOVA
(p-value)
Food and Beverage
ANOVA
(p-value)
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Appendix B
Table B1 · Frequent behaviour of the football spectator tourist (n=109)
Variables
NEV
%
RAR
%
SOM
%
OFT
%
ALW
%
Mean Std. Dev.
Think and Feel
1 like to see my idols
11,8 8,4 19,2 32,0 28,6 3,6 1,3
2 I appreciate the animation in football
stadium
6,9 5,4 18,7 33,0 36,0 3,9 1,2
3 I believe in the victory of my team
3,4 3,4 8,9 20,2 64,0 4,4 1,0
4 I feel entranced with the goals of my team
3,4 2,0 5,4 21,7 67,5 4,5 0,9
5 I feel good physically and psychologically
5,4 4,4 10,3 36,0 43,8 4,1 1,1
6 I am happy to know a new destination
8,4 7,4 18,7 34,5 31,0 3,7 1,2
Hear
7 Friends
3,4 5,9 22,2 46,8 21,7 3,8 1,0
8 Family
6,4 8,4 26,6 35 23,6 3,6 1,1
9 Coworkers
16,7 13,3 30,5 32 7,4 3,0 1,2
10 Public
13,8 18,2 36,5 21,2 10,3 3,0 1,2
11 Sound information of the stadium
12,8 19,2 37,4 19,7 10,8 3,0 1,2
12 Radio
23,2 20,7 27,6 19,2 9,4 2,7 1,3
13 TV online
26,6 14,8 25,6 25,1 7,9 2,7 1,3
14 Online Newspapers
21,2 17,2 20,7 27,1 13,8 3,0 1,4
15 Social Networks
14,3 12,3 23,2 32 18,2 3,3 1,3
16 Supporters group
25,6 21,2 19,2 18,2 15,8 2,8 1,4
17 Other
41,4 15,8 31,5 6,4 4,9 2,2 1,2
See
18 Environment created by the media:
radio and television
9,9 9,4 21,2 34 25,6 3,6 1,2
19 Conicts between supporters outside
the stadium
21,2 32,5 28,6 11,3 6,4 2,5 1,1
20 Attractions in the city where the match
takes place
11,8 18,2 32 22,7 15,3 3,1 1,2
.../...
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Variables
NEV
%
RAR
%
SOM
%
OFT
%
ALW
%
Mean Std. Dev.
Think and Feel
21 Inner zone of the stadium
8,4 10,8 27,6 36,5 16,7 3,4 1,1
22 Audience
7,9 10,8 27,6 37,4 16,3 3,4 1,1
23 Supporters group
12,3 13,3 20,2 29,6 24,6 3,4 1,3
24 Electronic information
13,3 13,3 34 27,1 12,3 3,1 1,2
25 Teams in the game
6,9 3,4 16,3 30 43,3 4,0 1,2
26 Refereeing team
11,3 16,7 25,6 26,6 19,7 3,3 1,3
27 Technical teams
10,3 15,3 29,6 27,6 17,2 3,3 1,2
28 Friends
6,4 7,9 30,5 37,9 17,2 3,5 1,1
29 Family
8,9 14,3 30 33,5 13,3 3,3 1,1
30 Coworkers
25,6 17,2 36,5 15,8 4,9 2,6 1,2
31 Marketing/Merchandising clubs
16,3 19,2 31,5 21,2 11,8 2,9 1,2
32 Food and Beverage
12,8 19,2 34,5 25,1 8,4 3,0 1,1
33 Conicts between supporters inside
the stadium
23,2 33,5 28,1 9,9 5,4 2,4 1,1
34 Animation in stadium
8,4 8,9 27,1 37,4 18,2 3,5 1,1
Say and do
35 I comment orally during the match
11,3 19,2 23,2 27,6 18,7 3,2 1,3
36 I celebrate the goals of my team
4,9 3 8,4 23,6 60,1 4,3 1,1
37 I express my dissatisfaction with
refereeing errors
6,9 11,3 27,1 31,5 23,2 3,5 1,2
38 I use the merchandising of my club
15,8 14,3 20,7 23,6 25,6 3,3 1,4
39 I always support my team during
the match
4,4 3,9 14,3 30,5 46,8 4,1 1,1
40 I support my team when it is winning
5,4 2,5 15,3 29,1 47,8 4,1 1,1
41 I contest my team when it is losing
17,7 22,2 29,6 18,2 12,3 2,9 1,3
42 I celebrate the victory of my club
3,9 3,9 9,4 25,1 57,6 4,3 1,1
43 I celebrate the victory of the adversary
team
10,8 25,6 45,3 11,8 6,4 2,8 1,0
44 I attend the match in full
7,4 3 12,8 27,6 49,3 4,08 1,2
NEV = never; RAR = rarely; SOM = sometimes; OFT = often; ALW = always.
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Table B2 · Concordance of the football spectator tourist (n=109)
Variables
SDIS
%
DIS
%
NAND
%
AGR
%
SAGR
%
Mean
Std.
Dev.
Aspirations
45 I desire to attend a good football match
4,4 2 11,3 21,2 61,1 4,33 1,05
46 I wish that my team is the best
3,4 1,5 6,9 21,7 66,5 4,46 0,945
47 I wish my team wins the game
3,4 1,0 7,4 16,7 71,4 4,52 0,935
48 I desire to enjoy myself at the destination
5,9 2,0 11,3 29,6 51,2 4,18 1,1
49 I desire to know the attractions of the
tourist destination
8,9 5,9 23,2 31,5 30,5 3,69 1,218
50 Network
28,1 20,2 28,6 14,8 8,4 2,55 1,271
Concerns
51 Bad football match
6,9 8,9 22,7 34 27,6 3,67 1,171
52 Lack of security at the stadium
8,4 8,4 10,3 27,1 45,8 3,94 1,286
53 Lack of security outside the stadium
7,4 8,4 10,8 30,5 42,9 3,93 1,241
54 Poor access to the stadium
7,4 7,9 18,2 39,4 27,1 3,71 1,164
55 Parking
7,4 7,4 16,7 34,5 34 3,8 1,198
56 Delay in the exit of the stadium
stage after the match
8,4 7,9 25,1 31,5 27,1 3,61 1,203
57 Absence of immediate transportation
after the show for my area
14,3 8,9 29,1 27,6 20,2 3,31 1,288
58 Little comfort place on the bench
12,3 13,3 26,1 32,5 15,8 3,26 1,233
59 Unfavourable weather conditions
9,4 8,4 25,1 29,1 28,1 3,58 1,242
SDIS = strongly disagree; DIS = disagree; NAND = neither agree nor disagree; AGR = agree; SAGR = strongly agree.