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Primer Semestre – Número 17 · Enero-junio 2018
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Índice
8 The Role of Visual Merchandising to Position Fashion Retailers:
a Key Place in Spanish Literature
Carmen Llovet Rodríguez · University of China (ICUC)
30 ¿Cómo afecta al consumidor la publicidad presentada en
los videojuegos en dispositivos móviles?
Katherine Alexandra Flores Álvarez · Universidad Católica del Norte
Macarena Nicole Aranda Morgado · Universidad Católica del Norte
Manuela López · Universidad de Murcia
46 De responsabilidad social a sostenibilidad corporativa:
una revisión actualizada
Jaime González Masip · Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Pedro Cuesta Valiño · Universidad de Alcalá
72 Alternativas a la publicidad tradicional: Lovisual, un evento de éxito
Emma Juaneda Ayensa · Universidad de La Rioja
Cristina Olarte Pascual · Universidad de La Rioja
Miriam Pérez Bustamante · Universidad de La Rioja
90 Responsabilidad Social Corporativa. Estudio sobre la identicación
y clasicación de los stakeholders
Estrella Barrio · Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Ana M.ª Enrique · Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
110 REVISTA DE LIBROS
Coordinador: Julio Alard Josemaría · ESIC Business & Marketing School
112 Centralidad y Marginalidad de la Comunicación
y su Estudio
Por Julio Alard Josemaría · ESIC Business & Marketing School
114 Plan de comunicación on y o en la práctica
Por Ignacio Soret Los Santos · ESIC Business & Marketing School
116 La prensa más barata del mundo
Modelo de negocio de los diarios gratuitos españoles
Por Francisco Moreno Rey · ESIC Business & Marketing School
120 TESIS DOCTORALES EN COMUNICACIÓN
Coordinadora: Marta Gimeno Pascual · ESIC Business & Marketing School
130 AGENDA DE CONGRESOS
Coordinador: Francisco Moreno Rey · ESIC Business & Marketing School
134 Normas de publicación
144 Política editorial
150 Contenidos de la revista
D. Eduardo Gómez Martín
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ESIC Business & Marketing School
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Universidad Miguel Hernández
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Universidad Complutense de Madrid)
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D.ª Patricia Nuñez Gómez
Universidad Complutense (Madrid)
D.ª Cristina Olarte Pascual
Universidad de La Rioja
DTeresa Pintado Blanco
Universidad Complutense (Madrid)
D. Jorge Remondes
ISVOUGA - Instituto Superior de Entre Douro
e Vouga (Portugal)
DVanessa Roger Monzó
ESIC Business & Marketing School (Valencia)
D. Adolfo Sánchez Burón
Universidad Internacional Isabel I de Castilla
D. Joaquín Sánchez Herrera
Universidad Complutense (Madrid)
D. Luis Ángel Sanz de la Tajada
Universidad Complutense ( Madrid)
D. Ignacio Soret Los Santos
ESIC Business & Marketing School
Consejo de Redacción
El rol del visual
merchandising para
el posicionamiento
del retail en moda:
un lugar clave en la
literatura española
The Role of Visual
Merchandising to
Position Fashion Retailers:
a Key Place in Spanish
Literature
aDResearch ESIC
Nº 17 Vol 17 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2018  págs. 8 a 29
Llovet Rodríguez, C., (2018)
The Role of Visual Merchandising to Position
Fashion Retailers: a Key Place in Spanish Literature
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Comunicación
aDResearch ESIC. Nº 17 Vol 17
Primer semestre, enero-junio 2018 · Págs. 8 a 29
DOI: 17.7263/ADRESIC.017.001
Carmen Llovet Rodríguez
PhD in Communication
Associate Professor, School of Arts and
Science, New York Institute of Technology
Beijing campus
Faculty of International Media of Communication
University of China (ICUC),
cllovet@nyit.edu
El artículo de revisión investiga la herramienta de comunicación y marketing llamada vi-
sual merchandising (VM) mediante la cual el producto y la marca se exponen en la tienda.
Los elementos del VM transmiten particularmente una identidad emocional en la indus-
tria de la moda. El éxito internacional de compañías españolas como Zara, Pronovias y
Mango se vincula a la comunicación visual de la imagen de marca a través del universo
del retail. El VM necesita encontrar su sitio en la literatura académica española por prime-
ra vez ya que ha suscitado un interés reciente en el ámbito profesional. El status quo cubre
pubicaciones nacionales e internacionales desde las primeras manifestaciones encontra-
das en 1980 hasta 2017. El tipo de documentos revisados son bases de datos nacionales
e internacionales, revistas académicas especializadas en consumo, gestión de marca y
retail, así como manuales de diseño, comunicación, marketing y sociología, católogos de
librerías y universidades. Además, se ha considerado como una fuente importante de in-
formación las entrevistas con académicos, consultores y visual merchandisers en España.
Los resultados muestran que el VM facilita a las compañías españolas obtener reconoci-
miento de marca y posicionamiento-de manera coherente y efectiva- y conduce a los
consumidores a simplicar las decisiones de compra. Entre las conclusiones se puede se-
ñalar que el VM contribuye también a la creación de emociones en el retail textil a través
de la personalidad de la tienda. Las marcas que apuestan por esta herramienta creativa y
estratégica se encuentran entre las mejores marcas mundiales. Luego las implicaciones
para los directivos incluyen mayor inversión e investigación en esta técnica esencial para
las marcas de retail de moda en España. Con esta obra se ponen las bases del retail ya que
el retail oine es el predictor más fuerte de la compra online, un campo de investigación
futura sobre el conocimiento visual.
The review article examines the communication and marketing tool called visual
merchandising (VM) by which the product and the brand are displayed through the
store. The elements of VM transmit particularly an emotional identity in fashion retail.
The international success of Spanish companies like Zara, Pronovias and Mango
is linked to the visual communication of the brand image through the universe
of retail. VM needs to nd a place in academic Spanish literature for the rst time
as it has attracted recent interest from the professional approach. The status quo
covers national and international publications from the rst publications found
in 1980 to 2017. The type of documents reviewed are national and international
database, specialized journals in consumption, brand management and retail, as
well as textbooks of design, communication, marketing and sociology, catalogues at
libraries and universities. Besides, interviews with academics, consultants and visual
merchandisers in Spain constituted a valuable source of information. Results suggest
that VM helps Spanish companies to gain brand recognition and positioning -in an
eective and coherent way- and lead consumers to simplify shopping decisions.
Among the conclusions, it is highlighted that VM also contributes to the creation
of emotions in textile retail through the store personality. Brands that bet for this
creative and strategic tool are best global brands. Subsequently managerial
implications include more investment and research on this essential tool for textile
retail brands in Spain. Retail’s bases are established with this work as oine behavior
is the strongest predictor of online shopping, a future research eld for visual literacy.
RESUMEN
ABSTRACT
Clasicación JEL:
M31, M32
Palabras clave:
Visual merchandising,
revisión de la
literatura,
personalidad de
marca,
imagen de la tienda,
identidad emocional
JEL Classication:
M31, M32
Key words:
Visual merchandi-
sing,
literature review,
brand personality,
store image,
emotional identity
Nº 17 Vol 17 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2018  págs. 8 a 29
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Nº 17 Vol 17 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2018  págs. 8 a 29
1. Introduction
The world of stores has changed. The strong ar-
rival of ecommerce through mobile devices, pro-
liferation of shopping centers linked to leisure,
internationalization of companies in countries
whose cultures are different than their place of
origin, the presence of international brands in na-
tional shopping centers, the spread of renowned
firms’ outlets, and awareness for sustainability
are some of the factors that drive the efforts of
traditional establishments to improve their im-
age – because image is what connects to the cus-
tomer. It is in this environment that businesses
want to make clear how brands physically attract
consumers into the stores through their emo-
tions.
There is a marketing tool that integrates the
relationship between brand, consumer, product
and environment: visual merchandising (Bailey
& Baker, 2014). Lea-Greenwood (1998, 2013)
studies the role of visual merchandising (VM):
“the first visual communication of the position-
ing/image statement of the store’s offer” for fash-
ion retailers in UK. The author defines VM as
“the re-naming of display that has led to central-
ization and professionalism of the function”. VM
is demonstrated to be the most effective strategy
to communicate brand identity in the store
place, that is, a location where a brand says who
it is. In fact, store atmosphere and merchandise
display have the capacity to communicate “a
unique script” (Easey, 2009, p. 236).
In the beginning, ‘in-store brand’ was under-
stood as a window’ logotype to identify the cate-
gory. From the second half of the 20th century,
shopping has had a high emotional and affective
content, not only as the place of purchase, but
also because the brand chosen expresses some-
thing about consumer personality and corporate
identity, defined as “a set of stimuli that in few
seconds can give the spirit and value that the
enterprise wants to communicate” (Soto, 2012).
In Spain “ecommerce has become a main
business channel in the global growth strategy
(…) 56% of companies sell offline and online
(brick & click) and 44% just through Internet
(…) and there is a prediction of a reduction of
physical stores (brick & mortar)” (Josa & Llovet,
2015: 141). Other countries such as United States
show different data. Only one-third of the phys-
ical stores are open due to high costs and the
high rate of purchases on Internet
1
. The success
of the online stores is still “closely bound to re-
tail’s brand universe,” as the Inditex case study
explains, according to the report Best Spanish
Brands, published by Interbrand (2011, p. 51).
The report says that in Spain, 58% of online
fashion consumers interviewed by Google are
resistant to buy textile sector goods through In-
ternet because physical contact is considered ir-
replaceable, or because “consumers do not ex-
pect to receive the same brand experience”.
The evolution of physical stores confirms that
they still have a prominent role for the success of
the brand experience and influences on the on-
line stores. One of the keys is to connect the im-
age of the physical store with the image of the
online store. For example, the use of digital
screens at the windows of Diesel and Ebay, the
digital hangouts of C&A connected to the fol-
lowers of the brand at Facebook and the combi-
nation of digital walls, staircase and floors that
plays the role of a catwalk for Louis Vuitton (Josa
& Llovet, 2015, pp. 147, 149-150).
The purpose of this research is to focus on the
role of VM to position an emotional identity in
1 The source is an interview with Stephen Doyle, Senior Lecturer in
the Glasgow School for Business and Society (Glasgow Caledonian
University).
11
The Role of Visual Merchandising to Position Fashion Retailers: a Key Place in Spanish Literature · págs. 8 a 29
fashion retail, is considered most interesting for
Spain where emotional strategy has driven some
brands to success, in contrast to most of them
who have not yet full success due to a focus on
functional design or excellence in service (Inter-
brand, 2011). In this context, retail system is
identified as the most influential force shaping
the modern city (Kirby & Kent, 2010), and the
support strategy for organizational growth that
establishes a place to unite brand target (Doyle et
al., 2006). As such, it is necessary to value pro-
fessional work devoted to “design spaces that
project the brand into the store in a strategic
manner” (Soto, 2012, p. 7).
2. Questions, objectives
and methodology
The present research aims to study the contribu-
tion of visual merchandising (VM) to position
emotional brands in fashion retail. The relation-
ship between VM and emotions will be assigned
to brand personality, the responsible for convert-
ing stores into brands.
To answer the proposal made, the following
questions were formulated:
1. Is VM a tool of communication, brand rec-
ognition, and positioning as other tools (ad-
vertising or packaging) have demonstrated
(Halliday, 1996)
2
?
2. How does VM contribute to the creation of
emotional value in textile retail?
3. Which VM elements best communicate
emotional value?
4. Is VM an essential tool for textile retail
brands?
2 Halliday (1996) highlights Chryslers advertising as a good example
for creating brand personality and emotional attractiveness.
The general objective of this article is to ana-
lyze the contribution of VM to communicate
brand identity in retail, and specifically to con-
clude whether VM communicates an emotional
brand personality to textile retail. This objective
implies five specific objectives:
1. To define VM in textile retail and VM ele-
ments that brands value most.
2. To value VM’s work as a main retail element
that builds emotional image and emotional
positioning for fashion brands specially in
Spain.
3. To comprehend in the retail industry liter-
ature the reach of ‘store image’ and ‘visual
merchandising’; its development through
commercial application; and the relation-
ship between both concepts and consumer
perceptions about brands.
4. To provide recommendations to brands that
could help design store image strategies
based on VM so that they improve emotion-
al image and sales.
5. To identify VM as another source of creat-
ing associations as an integral part of mar-
keting communications system.
The methodological approach to the purpose
of this research is a conceptual perspective, from
which it is possible to deduce the concrete form
in which the VM develops brand personality at
the point of sale. The methodology used is the
literature review among national and interna-
tional database, specialized journals in con-
sumption, brand management and retail, as well
as textbooks of design, communication, market-
ing and sociology, catalogues at libraries and
universities. The status of the issue covers from
the first publications in Spanish on visual mer-
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Nº 17 Vol 17 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2018  págs. 8 a 29
chandising found in 1980 to international refer-
ences till 2017.
There are several reasons to choose the review
as the methodology. These arguments would ex-
plain why it was decided to offer a wider vision,
combining the literature research with referenc-
es from the professional field, which also shows
the interest on a topic that everyone experi-
ments. Interviews and meetings although could
not be considered among methodology but as
sources of knowledge, helped to provide a con-
text for the finds of the research, give them the
adequate weight, to understand VM practice and
to cover the gaps in Spanish references regarding
VM. This research has also been complemented
with many store visits.
First, due to the shortage of Spanish academ-
ic field, it was necessary to develop a more theo-
retical investigation that will guide a future em-
pirical research. Therefore, given the emerging
nature of subject and the initial effort to make a
theoretical basis on the professional reality, this
research implies a broad literature review about
terms and the status of the issue. Facing the need
to find relevant information, informative articles
have been considered and some used as main
references for this work.
Thirdly, the interview with experts and visual
merchandisers was thought to be a complemen-
tary method to the theoretical compilation, but
the non-homogeneous answers from experts
and the confidentiality of companies together
with the request from exclusivity was not com-
patible with the aims of this research
3
. In Spain,
it was especially productive to have conversa-
3 The guide for the in-depth interview was sent by email to sixteen
brands, whose representatives were also contacted by phone (but
only ve answered): Bimba y Lola, Mango, H & M, Puricación García,
Carolina Herrera, Custo, Loewe, Desigual, El Corte Inglés, Gloria Ortiz
and Primark. H & M and Primark explained, through their Dircom (Di-
tions with the consultants Carlos Aires, Founder
of the first Spanish firm specialized in VM, Mar-
keting Jazz, and George Homer, Director of GH
& Associates In-store Solutions, and professor of
VM in the Fashion Institute of Technology of
New York and Fashion Business School ISEM –
Universidad de Navarra).
In the UK, research was enriched by meetings
with authors of VM and branding literature con-
ducted in 2011. Gaynor Lea-Greenwood, Senior
Lecturer in Fashion Marketing and Buying at
Manchester Metropolitan University; Tony Kent,
Associate Dean of Research at London College of
Fashion (University of the Arts, London) and
Professor in Marketing who specializes in brand-
ing; Stephen Doyle, Senior Lecturer in the Glas-
gow School for Business and Society (Glasgow
Caledonian University) and who specializes in
retailing and fashion brand management; Ron-
nie Ballantyne, Professor and Lecturer in Mar-
keting at Glasgow Caledonian University, is fo-
cused on consumer choice, and an industry
consultant on brand image and personality for
the last 14 years; Grete Birtwistle, Professor at
Glasgow Caledonian University and Cofounder
of British Institute for Fashion Research, where
she has researched image strategy and British
fashion brands positioning, as well as consumer
store perception. (See Table 1)
3.Status of the issue
Several elements need to be defined and related
before explaining the role of VM in communi-
cating emotional brands through the fashion re-
tail: VM, retail branding, brand personality and
fashion. The flourishing panorama of fashion
retail in Spain requires the study of a marketing
rector of Communication) or consultant, that there were sensitive is-
sues related to business core.
13
The Role of Visual Merchandising to Position Fashion Retailers: a Key Place in Spanish Literature · págs. 8 a 29
tool that cooperates to communicate the brand
within the integrated marketing communica-
tions approach.
3.1. VM, retail, branding, fashion
VM is examined as one of the brand’s communi-
cation tools as it is related to the company’s posi-
tioning; that is, how visual identity presentation
in retail improves the purchasing experience.
Besides, VM has been described as the commer-
cial presentation of the brand promise at the
point of sale. In it, new VM’s tasks, more than
just window dressing, can be observed turning
the store into a strategy of support for the prod-
uct and the brand, and much more than simply
in a distribution role.
The store environment, understood as a com-
munication tool by itself and as a stage for inter-
action, is found in its paradigm in Zara. The best
strategy and tactics are employed, from the loca-
tion and size of its establishments to the details
of style and aesthetic. Retail shows perfectly the
difference between buying as a transaction and
buying as a way of living an experience. The
fashion sector reflects the dominance of the in-
tangible as the best guarantee of market share.
The store stands as the source of authority and
influence in fashion, and a place where the cus-
tomer feels himself as the hero of a movie.
For industries as fashion, VM is the stage with
equal or more effectiveness than other strategies
(advertising, packaging) which reinforces a co-
herent brand message in an integrated market-
ing communications (IMC) approach. IMC is
understood as “the system by which enterprises
coordinate their marketing communication tools
to communicate a simple, clear, coherent, credi-
ble and competitive message about the organiza-
tion and their products” (Jobber & Fahy, 2007,
p. 226).
Brand personality is closely related to con-
sumer experience. Personality makes a brand
valuable in the consumer’s life and identity. It
does this by turning brand into an experience,
an attitude, and a lifestyle that produces emo-
tional and self-expressive benefits (Cerviño,
2002: 73-75). The emotional aspect of experi-
ence is what builds a memorable brand (Pine &
Gilmore, 1998: 97). Experiences that engage the
client most are the ones that communicate
through five senses (sensorial experience), and is
what occurs in store environments. In this con-
Table 1. Interviews have constituted a main source of information about VM practice in Spain
Name Position Institution
Jesús Echevarría Director of Communication Department Inditex
Alberto Criado Director of Visual Merchandising Zara
Richard Gum Director of Sales Corteel Man (Corteel)
Juan Manuel Gil Director of Visual Merchandising (last ve years) Hoss Intropia
Iván García Director of Visual Merchandising (last three years) Las Rozas Village
Rafael Puente Freelance Visual Merchandiser (last 35 years) La Martina
Source: Original material.
aDResearch ESIC
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Nº 17 Vol 17 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2018  págs. 8 a 29
text, VM is a tool that helps transfer brand per-
sonality to the store and then to the client.
Retail is a frequent business model in the tex-
tile area, and is used to refer to ‘stores’. Expres-
sions as ‘point of sale’ has been followed by ‘re-
tail’ because it has been revealed that point of
sale not only sells but also builds brand image.
Evidence of this assertion is that in order to as-
sess consumer perception about brand, brand
image, some authors use store image directly.
Creating and developing brands through retail
has been converted by business schools into ‘re-
tail branding’, according to an opinion pub-
lished by IE Business School in 2011. Other ev-
idence that store does more than just sell (Ridgway
et al.; 1994; the Author, 2010; and Soto, 2012) is
to name it ‘point of sale’; that is, to say that all its
elements are oriented towards clients’ involve-
ment in the buying process.
Other distribution system models, such as
wholesale, outlet (traditionally known as the
end-of-season discount but recently transformed
into a distribution channel that reserved a per-
centage of their production) or, online, will be
considered in this work, but we find that retail is
where VM is better controlled and where brand
personality is presented in a more evident way
because of its own characteristics.
Nowadays, brand value is in the scenario of
interactivity where brand is managed more than
in product, according to experts (Kent, 2003,
2007; Benavides, 2011; Alfaro, 2012). The idea
of value as an interactive, relative and preferen-
tial experience, considers the duality of the ra-
tional-emotional in human behavior, overcomes
the classic approach of functional value based
on economic utility. Throughout this work, we
will analyze these approaches deeply in order to
define types of brand benefits. Alfaro (2011),
sums up ‘value’ as the ability to recommend and
build brand loyalty and recognizes the source of
value in aesthetic design as being able to pro-
duce positive impressions through brand per-
sonality. Gallarza & Gil Saura (2006) perform a
literature review of the concept of ‘value’ in the
consumer environment and assign its dynamic
nature to the appearance of the Internet. The
authors suggest a scale to measure value based
on a balance between benefits and sacrifice: pos-
itive elements such as ‘quality’ and ‘satisfaction’,
and negatives such as ‘psychological cost’ in
which they conclude the pre-eminence of the
quality-cost relationship (without obscuring the
difficulty of applying it to the service sector be-
cause of its greater intangibility).
Taking into consideration Bordanova’s opin-
ion, published by magazine Marketing+Ventas
(2007: 54), ‘value’ in retail business is defined
as “the special relation with buyers so that
through actions, activities, and tools applied to
each phase in the route of point of sale, helps to
sell and increase loyalty”. Some examples of ac-
tivities are interactive displays because they
evoke emotions that make a unique and indi-
vidual experience (Kozinets et al., 2002: 20).
Academics use ‘brand theatre’ or ‘retail enter-
tainment’ to talk about the most important mar-
keting and communication strategy in fashion
sector where point of sale is the main character,
because of the experience provided by buying
and by visiting the store. This term also ap-
peared in Bordanova (2007: 54), who states that
“to visit a store can be much richer than just a
purchasing transaction”.
The store has the ability to become a sociali-
zation and leisure place (Seock & Lin, 2010) in
order to obtain higher profitability through traf-
fic and income. In Alfaro’s words (2012: 16), the
ability for entertaining “captures hearts, minds
and buying decisions”. An example in online ap-
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parel retailers is the use of visual sensory ena-
bling technologies that “enhance consumers’
enjoyment of the shopping process on their web
site” (Jiyeon&Forsythe, 2009).
The textile industry in Europe is characterized
by “fragmented production, highly concentrated
distribution and intense and democratized inter-
national competition,” so “it is recommended to
reappraise business systems adapted to continu-
ous change in consumer pleasure” (López & Fan,
2009: 280). Understanding and satisfying con-
sumer needs, expectations, and wants was the
purpose of Jolson & Spath (1973: 49), after ana-
lyzing a scenario where retailers did not consider
facets that really motivated consumers –such as
store location and specialization, quality–cost re-
lationship, quality and merchandise availability.
Finally, it is required to define another element
in the purpose of this research. Although terms
‘fashion’ and ‘textile’ are used equally in media to
refer to the business, groups, or sector firms, when
‘fashion’ is used, it will be focused on textiles
(clothing and some footwear, only). In Spain there
is no fashion sector category, but a textile category
which includes clothes, home and home accesso-
ries, according to an Acotex report in 2013. The
fashion industry has been associated to a commu-
nicative dimension because apparel communi-
cates values and because “fashion must be com-
municated to be known, followed, accepted and
consumed” (Quintas & Quintas, 2010: 200).
Jackson & Shaw (2001: 187) consider fash-
ion in a broad sense as “style accepted by major-
ity, and commonly expressed by clothes, hair-
style and other products and services related to
appearance”; from shoes, fragrances and acces-
sories, to hairdressing, image consultancy and
cosmetic surgery (Easey, 2009: 3-4). But fashion
also has to do with other visible lifestyle facets
influenced by fashion trends.
3.2. Visual merchandising and retail in Spain
The Spanish retail fashion environment has
evolved extremely during the last two decades.
Spending on clothing increased from 2001 to
2005 but decreased more and more between
2005 and 2015, resulting a total of 6.000 million
dollars less in the last 10 years (Kantar World-
panel, 2015). The same source estimates the re-
duction in an annual average of 40 to 34 gar-
ments, a price average from 16% to 12, 6% and a
spending average from 583 to 437 (although
a 13% of Spanish fashion consumer’ spending
average is about 775 , according to Kantar
Worldpanel in Revista inforetail, 2016). Moreo-
ver, in the last decade there has been a change
from traditional commerce to fashion chains, and
the textile sector has revived with a price rise
and the adult target, due to and aged population
or for an ‘anti-aging’ purpose (Kantar Worldpanel,
2015).
The report Destination Retail 2016 (Simón,
2016) locates Inditex -Zara, Zara Home and
Massimo Dutti- Mango and Desigual among 240
retail brands that have more international pres-
ence. Fashion industry in Spain generates since
2014 more growth (the highest increase of in-
dustrial fabrication since 2010), consumption
and employment (an increase of 3,7%) while
some other companies still face the strong com-
petitiveness. An economic report of the textile
industry (Modaes.es, 2015) explains that the in-
ternational expansion of retailers -some of them
worldwide leaders like Zara, Mango and Camp-
er- has helped them to overcome the economic
crisis and recession of the last years. For exam-
ple, the challenging environment and a reduction
of stores have influenced negatively to Desigual
in the last year (Modaes, 2016).
We have identified specific reasons that sup-
port the study of visual merchandising’s fashion
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brands in Spain. First, VM in textile retail needs
to find a place in academic Spanish literature
where it has attracted recent interest. In library
catalogues, the term ‘visual merchandising’ is a
recognized subject in an isolated way in an arti-
cle opinion by Aires for Marketing y Ventas mag-
azine (2008, p. 18), the dissertation and thesis
by Llovet (2010, 2014), the Master’s dissertation
by Bellvís in 2011, the final project of Río in
2012 -whose approach focuses on product dis-
tribution strategy and the force of the chain’s
personnel- and Romera (2013). We also find
one reference to online visual merchandising
(Gusó, 2016). In university catalogues, there is a
mention of the term in Spanish translation of
Morgan (2008) and Bou (2008).
Nevertheless, terms like ‘windows, decorative
design, interior design and store design’ show
that Spanish research has studied the principal
facets related to VM through communication
studies, professional, technical and artistic train-
ing. As such, there are findings in ‘general design
applied to commerce’ (Asensio, 1980 y 1992;
Minguet, 2005; Serrats, 2006; Broto, 2008; Are-
nas, 2011; and Equipo Vértice, 2012), ‘win-
dows’ (Mola, 1982; Vicens, 1990; Asensio,
1996; Collins, 1996; Valencia, 2000; Fernández
Rivero, 2002; Rico, 2005; Bou, 2006, 2008; Ba-
hamón & Vicens, 2009; Cabezas & Bastos,
2009; Calvo & Figueira, 2010; Soto, 2012;
García Navarro, 2016) and ‘interior’ (Asensio,
2008; Francisco, 2008; Sánchez Ordoñez, 2010
and Carreras, 2013).
The remainder of Spanish literature regarding
facets related to VM is presented through various
translations (Cliff, 1993; Mostaedi, 2000; Cal-
ver, 2002; Pracht, 2004; Dallo, 2005; Lam,
2008; and Ching, 2011). Besides, there are also
references in Spanish from the ‘merchandising’
approach (Salén, 1994; Burruezo García, 1999
and Martínez, 2005; and Jiménez Marín, 2016),
‘communication of fashion brands’ and fashion
routes’ (Díaz Soloaga, 2007, 2014), ‘store expe-
rience’ (Alfaro, 2012), ‘advertising’ and ‘architec-
tonic role of commercial shops’ (Cairns, 2009,
and Losada, 2012). The explanation Losada
(2012, p. 85) finds for limited references in VM
is interesting. In the case of display windows, it
is designed for at the moment; characterized as
the “ephemeral, youthful and moody nature of
the stores”, it seems to diminish the work that
comes with it. Nevertheless, the author consid-
ers immediacy an advantage for the discipline,
“that is laden with spontaneity in such a way
that in those interiors it is simpler to identify
glances and loans that in other projects are
erased precisely because of its marginal charac-
ter”. And finally, it is an opportunity for research
which could be taken advantage.
Second reason is that investment in VM is
prominent, considering its positive consequenc-
es on brand image and increased sales. Retail
positioning influences sales and consumer per-
ceptions (Newman & Darshika, 2004), and vice
versa. Sales decrease with ineffective positioning
against intense competition (Davies & Brooks,
1989 & Davies, 1992). Specifically, Dotson &
Patton, 1992 studied how the recession affected
large American department stores, such as Sears
and Macy’s, from 1980 to 1990 when visits to
the stores decreased from twelve to four hours
per month. The fact is attributed to various rea-
sons: lack of differentiation in store elements at
point of sale (physical design, atmosphere and
service) which implies a slow and boring shop-
ping experience, and competition of specialized
stores, such as Gap or Limited, and store satura-
tion.
Despite window dressing, the principle VM
element, being considered “the most profitable
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advertising tool in retail commerce”, it is recog-
nized that “a lot of traders neglect the use of win-
dow displays and invest much money in other
methods”, and is recommended to “include win-
dow display budgets in the establishment’s glob-
al budget” (Equipo Vértice, 2008, p. 115). In
Spain, since the late nineties, “there are few busi-
nesses that work with window dressing profes-
sionals on their staff, or as part-time (employ-
ees), although it is recognized that “more than
80% of sales depend on window displays”, ac-
cording to Fernández Rivero (2002, p. 2). The
author considers ‘windows’ beyond the work in
exterior shop windows, but as the coordination
of interior as well as exterior store image.
Thirdly, we realize that there is a lack of re-
search in textile companies. Therefore, academic
and professional literature is frequently com-
bined. By making this information closer to the
public, we reveal an increasing interest. Moreo-
ver, Zimmer & Golden (1988, p. 265) consider
a problem of previous studies; store image is
predetermined by the researcher, and therefore,
does not capture the value of the retail business-
es’ image because the information doesn’t come
directly from those questioned.
Even if VM empirical research is limited,
leading brands in value are also leaders in mar-
ket share and invoicing every year. Facing this
phenomenon, it’s also true that some brands
could be more efficient if they did more research:
optimizing resources at less cost and maximiz-
ing profitability. On one hand, the ranking Inter-
brand Best Spanish Brands for 2015 includes five
fashion brands. Three of the companies belong-
ing to Inditex group are listed: Zara (nº 2) and
brand value 10.687 million Euros, Bershka (nº
5) brand value of 1.201 million Euros and Mas-
simo Dutti (nº 12) with a brand value of 847
million Euros. On the other hand, according to
the Acotex economic report in, billing for the en-
tire Spanish textile market 2013 (men, women
and children’s apparel, home and accessories)
totaled 15.850 billion Euros; Inditex’s contribu-
tion was 3.754 billion euros and Grupo Corte-
fiel, 712 million Euros.
A fourth reason to choose to study visual in
retail is that retail is considered a business model
perfectly adapted to the current market environ-
ment. Since the end of the 20th century, and
above all, during this 21st century, great changes
have been produced such as the proliferation of
new technologies that influence marketing’s role
in communications. This study meets the need
to deepen the way in which it engages a new
type of active consumer who “has opened a new
way of dialogue and involvement”, according to
Interbrand’s report (2011, p. 32). It is about pro-
moting an experience that turns brands into
emotions (Gobé, 2001). Experiential marketing
creates a new relation between brand and client,
called “revolution” by one of the main authors:
Schmitt (1999).
Fifth, this research is especially convenient
because of the influence of emotions as media-
tors of textile consumer attitudes. Apparel ex-
presses who I am or who I would like to be,
while taking into account the personal and so-
cial significance of consumption (Evans, 1989).
Yoo et al. (1998) advises retail managers to make
use of new ways to improve positive emotions
and to reduce negative emotions in consumers.
It is essential to ask if specific retail elements in
the textile sector, particularly VM, influence de-
cisively on consumer behavior. It is understood
as “the group of physical and mental activities –
shopping, data collection, familiar budget distri-
bution– that takes part in one way or another
and encourages them to buy, and to choose such
product or brand” (Salén, 1994: 95).
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Finally, retail has been chosen because it is
the most extended distribution system in the
textile sector. According to the percentage of re-
tail companies in Europe that affect the econo-
my, the information regarding market share and
consumer spending in the fashion subsector
could be underestimated (Coca-Stefaniak et al.,
2010). Nevertheless, the retail sector constitutes
one of the largest sectors of consumption when
understood as an activity which builds both a
social and personal identity. Additionally, retail it
is a sector especially beneficial for industry posi-
tioning due to its intense competition (Newman
& Darshika, 2004). Moreover, several authors
(Schim & Kotsiopulos, 1992; Birtwistle &
Freathy, 1998; Birtwistle et al., 1999 a & b; Ker-
foot et al., 2003; Paulins & Geitsfeld, 2003; and
Nobbs et al., 2013) are focused on applying re-
tail positioning principles and theory of store
image’s dimensions to the textile industry.
4. Results
Regarding to the first question about whether
VM is a tool of communication, brand recogni-
tion, and positioning, it can be said that in the
textile sector in Spain, VM appears to be a strat-
egy linked to the business strategy. In fact, in
retail, brand strategy is developed in store image
through a group of attributes designed to appeal
to clients. This strategy today has a main role
above other activities —as retail organization—.
This is due to a strategy that shows a quick op-
tion in the buying decision in a homogeneous
market —in product or price — and a new way
of differentiation based on the brand.
To evaluate the literature review implies to
empower VM in literature in the retail sector
which had not been considered as worldwide
before 1980 according to Bitner (1992, p. 57).
The author suggests that until that decade, VM
(named ‘atmospherics’) has been recognized
Figure 1 · Reason to research VM in textile retail
Source: Original material
VM Retail
Spanish literature
scarcity
Useful for market
Prominent
investment
Useful for managers
Research shortage
Store system
most extensive
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only as a tangential resource where managers
“plan, control and build” with other aspects (of
the business) that could benefit relationships in
the organization.
Results about the second research question
on how VM contribute to the creation of emo-
tions in textile retail, VM can transmit emotions
in a sector where visual representation of brands
is especially significant. VM is an emotional tool
as other marketing tools (such as advertising or
graphics) but through the store’s personality en-
dowed with the brand and though sensorial ex-
perience at the point of sale. The innate ability of
retail to produce strong emotions encourages
the emotional identity of brands, and is associat-
ed with its interactive character and closeness to
the consumer. Indeed, the broader literature
which has been reviewed does acknowledge the
efficient contribution of VM to a brand personal-
ity that reflects the full dimensions of emotion.
Some brands that do not advertise or is scarce,
could assign their success to VM (i.e. Inditex or
Cortefiel), as is Zara’s paradigm in the global
ranking of Best Global Brands. “Zara continues to
expand its empire, with sales increasing 18 % in
2012 (…) the Inditex-owned brand is evolving
its visual communications image to express a
more sophisticated and aspirational brand im-
age based on four key pillars: beauty, clarity,
functionality, and sustainability” (Interbrand,
2013). “Zara reinforces its positioning on market
(increasing 16 %) through shopping experienc-
es. The strategic location of more than 2.000
stores all around the world contributes to the
association’s consumers between Zara and Pre-
mium” (Interbrand, 2015). Other examples
show the relationship between VM and other
retail image attributes as occurs when the brand
image uses communication based on advertis-
ing not only in the windows but also in the inte-
rior (i.e. Mango, Loewe or Armani).
We found third question-which VM elements
best communicate emotional value- especially
difficult to identify. In a context which favors a
greater consumer experience, such as service,
empirical research is needed to investigate how
physical atmosphere has an influence on client
satisfaction. Bitner’s research reveals the real im-
pact of specific store elements’ design, for exam-
ple, on social interaction. As Sen et al. (2002)
indicates, there is a lack of academic literature
about the concept and as an empirical study to
truly value its professional role. The most recent
aspects studied in foreign universities is VM in
online stores.
While some authors stand that physical ap-
parel, stores must evolve to let consumers enjoy
a cyber shopping experience (Yaoyuneyong, Fos-
ter & Flynn, 2014; and Choo & Yoon, 2015)
several defend traditional elements of store envi-
ronment. In a research with consumers of Swed-
ish retailer’s results prove that atmosphere, per-
sonnel and layout are most valued by consumers
than advanced technology” (Bäckström & Johans-
son, 2017). In the same sense, Jain, Takayanagi
and Malthouse (2014) identified five factors that
make up consumers’ perception towards a show
window, among which “feel good about the store”
prevails social, hedonic, informational and im-
age. For Park, Jeon and Sullivan (2015) in-fash-
ion and attractiveness visual merchandising can
influence positively in brand attitude and pur-
chase intention. According to Nobbs, Foong and
Baker (2015) the main elements of window dis-
play from the point of view of a non-participant
observation and the visual merchandisers inter-
viewed are color and lighting. However, the ap-
proach is different depending on the position that
VM plays in the market place.
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For some Spanish firms, VM is focused on
store windows, and for others VM includes other
retail image attributes – i.e. product display and
space design. Nevertheless, the fact that each
brand award different importance to VM ele-
ments explains their strategic use of VM related
to their own brand values. Therefore, seasons
such as Christmas or during price-reductions
are periods of time when the buying intention is
more influenced by cognitive and functional
reasons related to the product – i.e. merchandise
price reductions or social motivations for shop-
ping. Precisely as Vignali et al. (1993: 59) sug-
gest, it is important to not carry out surveys dur-
ing the sales period to determine if clients are
substantially different from clients during sales
period. Regarding distribution as an influencing
factor in VM, the outlet distribution system
makes it difficult, and makes the work of VM
more creative as it sometimes implies working
with goods from previous seasons.
There are buyers that enjoy shopping for
clothes and others don’t; there are those who are
conscious of the fashion sector and others who
are not interested enough in VM’s work. The re-
search of Law, Yip and Wong (2013) finds differ-
ent patterns in consumer behavior to evaluate
visual stimulus in the stores. For the Eastern
consumers that answered the focus groups “by
considering the aesthetic, symbolic and cultural
perceptions of a function-oriented product (inti-
mate apparel), display elements, such as manne-
quins, color, lighting and props that emphasize
feelings of feminine sexuality, tend to trigger
negative affective responses in consumers which
finally affect purchase intentions”.
Regarding to the specific objectives on wheth-
er VM is an essential tool for textile retail brands,
based on the definition and reach of the terms
implied in the study, it can be affirmed that in
the Spanish textile sector, the terms ‘merchan
and ‘visual are used to talk about VM depart-
ments and professionals that already exist. The
synonym ‘merchandise presentation’ can also be
used (Colborne, 1996) and “the merchandise
presentation for selling, how it is coordinated
and exhibited in the most attractive way to make
the relationship between seller and consumer
easier” (Bou, 2008: 10). Even though these allu-
sions to VM imply more facets than the mer-
chandise (atmosphere, image and design), with-
out a doubt they mention the VM’s ability to
present not only the product but also brand im-
age, a principle value in today’s society. The sec-
ond term generalized in Spain is ‘retail’. In Spain
there is no word that defines the significance of
‘retail’. The same is applied to the Anglicism ‘re-
tailer, which is generally translated into, literally,
‘point of sale manager’. We have confirmed that
not only brands but also lifestyle magazines and
general press are familiarized with these terms
on the news.
5. Conclusions, limitations and
further research
1. Conclusions
The study aimed to provide insight into visual
merchandising in fashion retail. The results im-
ply that to comprehend VM as a communication
tool of brand identity in fashion sector implies an
understanding that product change requires
changing VM; if VM were strategic for compa-
nies, more budget and personnel would be au-
thorized. Therefore, it is suggested to the compa-
nies a long-term plan on visual merchandising
strategy (Niazi, Haider, Hayat, Hayat and Ul Has-
san, 2015). Brands that neglect brand identity in
retail also overlook the intangibles so much ap-
preciated in aspirational sectors, such as fashion,
and lose control of brand distributed through
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multichannel systems. For these reasons this in-
vestigator is in accordance with Lea-Greenwood
defining VM as “the first and most important el-
ement for retailer” (1998, 2013).
The finding implies that VM must be consid-
ered from the Communication Department as a
main source for maintaining coherence. The
continuous reference to company values exem-
plifies VM is a strategy as does the style (the look
& feel), positioning and as such the confidenti-
ality of the information during the interviews.
This data leads to the conclusion that brands
which take into account VM are among the most
highly sold and highly valued brands.
A second conclusion is that VM contribute to
the creation of emotions in textile retail. We
agree with Maehle, et al. (2011) that the person-
ality measurement scales include the emotional
dimension. The study of VM is especially inter-
esting in a hedonistic and recreational consump-
tion context, and in a product, such as textiles
where they take precedence within symbolic
benefits and the perception level is very high.
From the research, the need to measure percep-
tions is suggested.
Because every visual merchandiser says that
his job consists in improving brand image and
increasing sales, we can conclude that the visual
merchandiser’s knowledge of consumer’s answers
is a priority. Although firms’ scientific methodol-
ogy is not managed, it is clear that there is a con-
stant updating of store image. This is based on
the issue that visual merchandisers (constantly)
ask themselves – that is, whether or not the store
elements “work”, or, if they have made the prod-
uct sell it.
Besides the beneficial effects of the ‘retail
branding’, it is necessary to emphasize that we
cannot attribute to VM an exclusive relationship
of cause - effect with the personality of the emo-
tional brand, since they influence other variables
at the moment of creating the customers’ per-
ception of the marks, for example, price, adver-
tising, events, websites and even e-tailers.
Which VM elements best communicate emo-
tional value? There is no one criterion to exem-
plify a classification of retail elements that are
also VM elements, nor is there a particular vision
about the elements that form VM. That is, diver-
sity found (among the broad range of business-
es) shows that VM contributes to build brand
image. Besides, findings in VM research suggest
that intuition is most often applied, except for
cases like the British firm Next, studied for more
than ten years by Grete Birtwistle and her team
at Glasgow Caledonian University. The kind of
investigation to be considered when interpreting
the interviews comes from questionnaires in the
store focused on consumer preferences, i.e. Hoss
Intropia, or observations before and after being
exposed to store windows displays.
What can be concluded is that the variation of
VM’s emotional capacity in fashion retail depends
on four criteria: season, distribution system type,
consumer motivation and usage context and
consumer situation. Therefore, brand image in an
outlet system could lose coherence when com-
municated by VM in a store of the same brand
situated in retail. However, department stores
could vary in this regard to their own brand in
their own retail store.
The multisensory experience finds VM one of
its main partners allied demonstrating the inter-
action with current textile consumer’s profile.
But it is always understood in a complementary
way with some other contact points that also
provide consumers the possibility to participate
in brand (co-)creation.
Finally, the study makes important contribu-
tions to practitioners. In relation with the objec-
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tive to evaluate if VM is an essential tool for tex-
tile retail brands, historic development illustrates
that VM is a discipline that has evolved in the
textile sector, becoming especially relevant now-
adays. This study suggests managerial implica-
tions for building brand personality dimensions,
and particularly, for revealing whether emotion-
al dimensions are reflected through retail. For a
brand that needs to be perceived as emotional,
retail marketing should focus on emotional ele-
ments.
Therefore, VM is non-invasive compared to
the saturation advertising, and can find a more
receptive consumer. The store continues being a
useful space for increasing contact with consum-
ers through the five senses and for attracting
consumers bombarded by multiple messages.
As a managerial recommendation, taking into
account the high costs to reach audiences
through conventional advertising (and during
the current crisis), it is apparent that VM is effi-
cient and not especially expensive.
This research about offline stores can be use-
ful for online shops. The Internet has also under-
stood the need to animate consumers through a
simple and attractive design of website attributes
in order to win a positive “word of mouth”, and
to transfer the experience through offline retail
despite being less attractive as fun and social. Jay-
awardhena & Wright’s (2009) scale is interesting
for measuring aspects that influence the emo-
tions of online shoppers, and highlighting web-
site and merchandise attributes among store im-
age attributes.
Retail’s bases are established with this work
assuming that offline behavior is the strongest
predictor of online shopping. This phenomenon
can be explained because competitive advantage
based on design atmospheres is not possible for
retailers that only sell on the Internet. A website
cannot reach all consumer’s senses as an atmos-
phere when the consumer is physically inside
the store. Reaction to store atmosphere is a very
strong influence on consumer’s perceptions
about merchandise quality.
2. Limitations and further research
From a conceptual point of view, we have re-
viewed the bibliography in both the Spanish and
English languages. The great majority have been
in English due to its major development in the
United States and England, whereas it has not in
any practical sense been studied in Spain. It can
be assured that further investigations can extend
the findings of this study by completing more
recent VM aspects in other relevant cities such as
Milan, Paris and Berlin, and the origin of VM in
each of them.
Another limit resulted from the study – and
briefly mentioned throughout it – is to study
some aspects of retail that explain the link be-
tween VM and emotions: brand personality,
store personality, and the multisensory experi-
ence. We acknowledge that some other associa-
tions could be selected, such as user imagery, the
country of origin and symbol; other points of
view such as cognitive experience that are more
connected to functional than emotional benefits;
and some other aspects that influence in the re-
tail experience. For example, it should be inter-
esting to approach the product personality itself,
the influence of salespersons’ service quality as
Penz & Hogg (2011: 110) note, and the psycho-
logical consequences of commercial architec-
ture, as Kent highlights (2007). Another exam-
ple to investigate the relationships between
aesthetics and consumers reaction is the study of
female consumers that evaluated the quality of
apparel products guided sensory, emotional and
cognitive dimensions (De Klerk&Lubbe, 2008).
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To confirm the emotional contribution of VM
in a balanced but a significant way, the empirical
research has taken as a source of knowledge the
interviews with VM professionals from five fash-
ion retail brands with a strong presence and rele-
vant market share, and with eight selected
national and international academics and profes-
sionals of VM. To depict a wider perspective, the
methodology was intended to extend into other
brands. However, two difficulties were encoun-
tered: obtaining sensitive information related to
the business core; and the availability of the
visual merchandiser’s – which implies a lot of vis-
its to store (Morgan, 2008: 24). A proposal to
provide a holistic point of view would be to per-
form interviews with the VM’s professionals indi-
vidually, or in focus groups with professionals
whose professional activity is related to VM: ar-
chitects, brand managers and store managers.
We cannot make room to this interesting research
because this line of activity oversteps our primary
purpose.
Even though this research provides a com-
plete approach of VM as a communication strat-
egy, the methodology has directly focused on the
brands’ point of view, and indirectly on how VM
is perceived by consumers. The proof is the con-
tinuous allusions of VM professionals to con-
sumer’s feedback. It would be necessary to per-
form a comparative study between perceptions
of VM attributes and store image of the same
fashion brand in different cities in different
countries. Cross-cultural research would deduce
a cultural feature, for example, of how English
culture weighs the quality of sales personnel.
Therefore, it would be interesting to do an-
other comparative study of VM’s influence in
different distribution systems, from department
stores to shopping centers, outlets, and online
stores. In the same way, different methodologies
are suggested to assess consumer perceptions.
Store image could be analyzed. This aspect is the
key because it is necessary to measure whether
brands truly create a memorable experience on
consumers, as companies say. At this point, it is
difficult to isolate brand perception as a result of
VM activity from the perception that consumer
forms due to other communicative efforts, such
as advertising, promotional marketing, direct
marketing and public relations. A positioning
study based on store image (considering brand
as a person in mind) would complete traditional
positioning studies based on product attributes
(from brand as a product point of view). And, it
would demonstrate that consumers make deci-
sions based on self-expressive and emotional
benefits, not only functional benefits.
VM’s capacity to make a brand emotional can
be measured through the emotional impact of
VM attributes. Some projects and possible re-
search methodologies have been suggested. First
of all, employ a method that considers each one
of VM attributes and the senses affected. This
method should find a way to collect consumer
perceptions about VM in a holistic manner. It
makes no sense to measure each attribute an iso-
lated way from the remaining store attributes
because they will never be perceived as such.
Moreover, if this method is used, consumer pro-
files will be considered. The current study has
found that are significant with at least the fol-
lowing variables: if the consumer is fashion con-
scious or not; if they shop retail off line or on-
line; gender; if the consumer has bought or has
shopping intentions; and if consumer buys mass
market or luxury. The first variable quoted influ-
ences directly and decisively in order to receive
information about VM attributes, as the more
conscious one is of the sector, more attributes
will be identified.
aDResearch ESIC
24
Nº 17 Vol 17 · Primer semestre, enero-junio 2018  págs. 8 a 29
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PLANTILLA ENTREVISTA VISUAL
MERCHANDISER
1. Perfil del “visual”: formación y años de ex-
periencia.
2. Funciones de su trabajo en el día a día: ¿es
un gestor del punto de venta que repone o
aplicar sofisticadamente programas de ges-
tión; es el artista que presenta visualmente
el producto; o es quien crea y comunica
constantemente el concepto de tienda y la
imagen de marca?
3. ¿A qué atributos da importancia trabajar si
dependen de Ud. y si no dependen, de qué
manera le influyen o condicionan?:
a. Localización, formato o diseño de tienda,
arquitectura.
b. Escaparate.
c. Diseño interior y ambiente (luz, música,
color, otros clientes).
d. Staff.
e. Disposición de la mercancía.
f. Comunicación (publicidad y relaciones
públicas).
4. ¿En qué medida traslada los valores de la
marca a estos atributos?
5. ¿Tiene una visión creativa (estética) o es-
tratégica: ¿de enfocar las directrices, de
transmitir la imagen de la marca y de tomar
decisiones de forma integrada con los di-
rectivos de la empresa? A quién reporta: ¿al
director de marketing, al director general,
al director de comunicación o al departa-
mento de ventas?
6. Denominación del puesto de trabajo: ¿de-
partamento de visual, escaparatista senior o
junior?
7. Tamaño del equipo: los académicos (Mor-
gan, 2008) otorgan las siguientes funciones
según el puesto de senior o junior. ¿Es así en
su empresa?
•Senior: Para garantizar la adecuada cali-
dad y representación del producto en la
tienda, el senior está en contacto con toda
la plantilla: se reúne con las marcas y les
sugiere tendencias, sirve de enlace entre
gerente y director de planta, coordina a
los diseñadores y forma tanto el personal
de planta como al visual junior.
•Junior.Realiza las funciones del senior pero
con el personal de planta.
8. Relación con otros departamentos y actores
del visual: ¿con quién trabaja?
9. Investigación sobre la influencia del consu-
midor ¿tiene inputs del cliente? ¿Qué técni-
ca de investigación propia o ajena se lleva a
Anexo
29
The Role of Visual Merchandising to Position Fashion Retailers: a Key Place in Spanish Literature · págs. 8 a 29
cabo sobre las percepciones del consumidor,
cómo se utiliza esa información, y en qué di-
mensiones influyen más a un determinado
target —de edad o sexo por ejemplo?
10. ¿Son distintos los trabajos del visual que
se preparan en función de la cultura-ejem-
plo UK/España/Japón, o de qué modo se
adaptan?
11. ¿Cree que es una disciplina o posición re-
conocida en la empresa y en el sector de la
moda? ¿Hay freelance trabajando para la
marca, independientes y especializados (en
interior, exterior o estilismos de moda), para
proyectos aislados como la renovación del
ambiente de la tienda?
12. ¿Qué lugar ocupa el visual en el presupues-
to de la marca, entre otras partidas: diseño,
producción, distribución?
13. Respecto del primer criterio para aplicar el
VM (el sistema de distribución): ¿De qué
manera influye el modelo de distribución
retail al VM?
14. Respecto del segundo criterio para aplicar
el VM (la categoría de producto):¿qué es lo
específico del VM en el sector de la moda,
aunque los visual se convierten en expertos
independientemente del área en que traba-
jen, pues en su carrera es frecuente la rota-
ción de establecimiento y la elevada estacio-
nalidad?
15. ¿Hay una supervisión o seguimiento del vi-
sual en las tiendas? Los académicos (Mor-
gan, 2008) hablan de una lista de control
que abarca aspectos como “la planificación,
presupuesto, sesiones de formación, inven-
tarios de material reutilizable, seguridad,
posibles reacciones de los consumidores o
localización del mensaje clave y de los pun-
tos focales”. ¿Se emplea a menudo o se tra-
baja de forma más intuitiva?
16. La primera asociación de VM que sirve de
referencia a los profesionales dedicados en
España a su puesta en práctica, es Retail
Design Institute. Actualmente RETAIL DE-
SIGN INTERNACIONAL es una iniciativa
para “que el retail ocupe el lugar que me-
rece, sin ánimo de lucro y al servicio del
retail en España, con las mejores prácticas
de retail”. Da especial importancia al VM,
recogiendo en informes, jornadas y publi-
caciones las mejores prácticas. ¿Tiene allí
presencia los VM de la marca, o no interesa
esta repercusión?